SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR 1861-65
The vast majority of those who migrated to Texas between 1846 and 1860 came from the South, bringing with them their attitudes and their politics. It was not until 1857, however, that states' rights advocates gained control of the Democratic party, after which they became even more aggressive. Elected governor in 1859, Sam Houston attempted to keep Texas in the Union but failed, and soon the state was embroiled in the Civil War.
There was relatively little fighting in Texas during the war, but the state nevertheless sacrificed thousands of men to the Confederate cause. The economy suffered, the financial structure of the state nearly collapsed, and there were constant shortages of supplies throughout the war. Politically, the Texas government proclaimed its loyalty to the Confederacy throughout the crisis, but there were strains on the relationship. Confederate military commanders occasionally behaved unreason