THERE is a truth, familiar to every one, over which I often marvel--that tremendous results frequently follow small and apparently irrelevant causes. In The Study of Sociology, Chapter XIII, I have pointed out that the organic and super-organic sciences illustrate in an eminent degree what I there called "fructifying causation." In the phenomena they deal with, the "multiplication of effects," seen in Evolution at large, is transcendent in degree. A disease-germ, getting into the body, produces complex derangements great and small throughout numerous organs; and, if recovery takes place, sequelœ are often such as affect disastrously the remainder of life. Similarly in a society, such a simple occurrence as the discovery of gold brings multitudinous results--an inrush of people, growths of towns, new social arrangements, gambling hells, demoralization, besides much wider effects--new businesses, new lines of traffic, and the changes presently caused throughout the world in the relative values of gold and goods.
The particular instance of this fructifying causa-