Biographies: Joseph Hall, 1574-1656, came of Puritan stock, entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1589, and became a Fellow in 1595. Under the patronage of the Drury family he secured the rectorship of Hawstead in Suffolk in 1601, but transferred to Waltham in Essex in 1607 under Lord Denny's patronage. Hall became Bishop of Exeter in 1627; engaged in controversy with Milton in 1641, the year in which he was impeached, and transferred to Norwich, where the mob evicted him from his cathedral. John Marston, 1576-1634, was the son of a lawyer of the same name; his mother was Italian. Marston entered Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1592, became a member of the Middle Temple in 1594 and held chambers there intermittently until 1606. He disappointed his father's hopes of a legal career, though it is not certain when Marston began his career as a dramatist, probably around 1598. He married in 1605, entered the ministry and became incumbent of Christchurch, Hampshire, in 1616, a living he resigned in 1631. For John Donne, see the pre-note to Chapter X.
Texts. Hall's first three books of Virgidemiarum ( 1597) was followed by the complete Virgidemiarum ( 1598); Marston Pigmalion's Image and Certaine Satyres appeared in 1598, and his Scourge of Villainie in the same year, shortly before Guilpin's anonymously published Skialetheia. Donne's satires remained unprinted in this period.
Modern Editions. The best texts of many Elizabethan satirists are those edited by Arnold Davenport for the Liverpool University Press; this series includes the works of Hall ( 1949), Marston ( 1960), Rankins ( 1948), and the Whipper Pamphlets ( 1951). Guilpin Skialetheia was edited by G. B. Harrison ( 1931). Donne's satires are contained in Grierson Works ( 1912,). The best texts of Harington Epigrams and Davies' Epigrams are those of McClure ( 1935) and Howard ( 1940) respectively. Davies is also available in Grosart's edition ( 2 vols., 1876). The Parnassus Plays were edited by J. B. Leishman ( 1949). Quotations are from these editions. Erasmus is quoted from J. Huizinga Erasnw of Rotterdam ( 1952), trans. by F. Hopman.
Scholarship and Criticism. R. M. Alden pioneering The Rise of Formal Satire in England ( 1899) is still useful, corrected by Davenport's various introductions; J. Peter Complaint and Satire in Early English Literature ( 1956) is the best general study; A. Kenan The Cankered Muse ( 1959) is the most stimulating, and of especial importance for Marston. A. Tate 'A Note on Elizabethan Satire' is in his Man of Letters . . . Selected Essays ( 1957). The best account of the literary quarrels are those by Leishman and Davenport, whose edition of Hall contains the text of the Bishop's Ban against controversial books in 1599.