CHAPTER III.
THE ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT.

THE actual organization of the government, administrative as well as judiciary, is the work of Peter the Great. Subsequently to him, however, some changes and modifications have been introduced. Previously to the time of the reforms of Peter the governmental machinery was not so complicated. In introducing the changes, Peter in some instances maintained, however, the old institutions, giving them only a new, mostly Germanic, name.

Anciently the Grand Duke, or Czar, was surrounded by a council called duma (which signifies thought, dumati, to think). This council was presided over by the sovereign in person. At that epoch the patriarch could sometimes assist in its deliberations. It was formed exclusively of the principal nobility, and of mediatized princes, that is, of those who once possessed independent sovereignties, with the Grand Dukes as lords paramount, but whose possessions became finally absorbed in the grand unity. Such a councillor was called dumny boïar, a boyard of the council, and this was the highest dignity and official title in the state. The provinces were administered most generally by such boyards, having very extensive powers. Their title then was that of woïewoda, signifying

-69-

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Russia as It Is
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface iii
  • Contents xv
  • INTRODUCTION. 9
  • Chapter I - CZARISM--ITS HISTORICAL ORIGIN. 37
  • Chapter II - THE CZAR NICHOLAS. 44
  • Chapter III - THE ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT. 69
  • Chapter IV - THE ARMY AND NAVY. 80
  • Chapter V - THE NOBILITY. 111
  • Chapter VI - THE CLERGY. 125
  • Chapter VII - THE BOURGEOISIE. 137
  • Chapter VIII - THE COSSACKS. 170
  • Chapter IX - THE REAL PEOPLE, THE PEASANTRY-SERFDOM. 180
  • Chapter X - THE RIGHTS OF ALIENS AND STRANGERS. 219
  • Chapter XI - THE COMMUNE. 226
  • Chapter XII - EMANCIPATION. 233
  • Chapter XIII - MANIFEST DESTINY 251
  • APPENDIX. 289
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