The attitude toward women and the family, and even health, in totalitarian society, like economics and a good many other subjects, was initially very different in the fascist states than in the Soviet Union. The Communists believed the Bolshevik Revolution and the Soviet Union represented a sharp break with the bourgeois past with its glorification of private property and the subordination of women. This ideology led to the conclusion that when private property was abolished, men and women would own everything in common and all people would therefore be free and equal. Women would be emancipated from the very restricted role they had played, not only within the family but also within society as a whole.
Fascist ideology, at least in its more mature stages, purported to defend traditional values, including the role of women, religion, and the family against the (modern) challenges of Communism and liberalism. Western civilization, they claimed, had been undermined by the Industrial Revolution, which had given birth to Marxism and atheism and threatened to destroy the family by luring women out of the household and into traditionally “male” jobs in factories and offices. They also believed, at least in Germany, that the Industrial Revolution had undermined health by polluting the air and water and that modern medicine, as practiced by Jews, with its emphasis on drugs, was ineffective in restoring the health of the nation’s people.
Prior to the Russian Revolution, and during the New Economic Policy, the Communists deprecated the family and associated it with private property and the bourgeoisie. The early