1. Pax means not only ‘peace’ but ‘pacification’—peace on our terms.
2. Samuel Huntington has suggested that neither the USA nor the USSR was ‘a nation state in the classical European sense’ because each ‘defined its identity in terms of ideology’ (Huntington, 23).
3. The USA was spending 7 % of its GDP on armaments, the Soviet Union perhaps 25 %, an unsustainable burden (Hobsbawm 1995, 247).
4. Keep, 7. Eric Hobsbawm stressed economic failures, inability to generate a hi-tech economy and sustain the role of superpower, uncompetitiveness, only mentioning in a murmur the desire for ‘freedom of choice’, although populations throughout Eastern Europe were calling for liberty, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly and association (Hobsbawm 1995, 117).
5. I am using the term ‘culture’ in its differing senses: as a quest for high achievement and perfection; as the corpus of ongoing intellectual and imaginative work; as a social way of life reflected in art, learning, institutions, and manners; and (closer to Matthew Arnold and the Oxford English Dictionary), ‘the training, development, and refinement of mind, tastes and manners’.
6. Kelly and Shepherd, 9–12.
7. The Russians launched heavy bombardments of cultural statistics. Moscow News (30 Aug. 1947) announced that the Soviet capital possessed 2,253 libraries containing 64 million volumes. The previous year 1.2 million users of the Lenin Library had borrowed 5 million items. Moscow had 60 museums, 24 theatres (offering 8 million spectators 9,000 performances, and staffed by 7,000 actors, musicians, and painters). The Moscow Conservatory of Music, which had only 150 students before the Revolution, now boasted 2,000. There were 26 music schools in Moscow, with 9,000 students, and four symphony orchestras.
8. Riesman, 39.
9. A somewhat perverse thesis concerning Zhdanov’s leading role has been advanced by Werner G. Hahn, who argues that Zhdanov, ‘Stalin’s top deputy’ in 1946, was really a ‘moderate’ because of his resistance to the geneticist Lysensko and the dogmatists in the field of philosophy. The Zhdanovshchina is to be understood in the light of Zhdanov’s rivalry with the comparatively non-ideological, pragmatic Georgiy Malenkov: ‘In fact, in 1946 he cynically sought to beat his enemies by campaigning against ideological softness and by enunciating crude, doctrinaire attacks on culture’ (Hahn, 9–12, 69). Either way, it was of no comfort to the victims.
10. NYT 19 Nov. 1968.
11. Leavis quoted in Banham and Bigsby, 7–22.