1. Wayne Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961, 1983), 163.
2. Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction, 379.
3. Bernard Williams, Moral Luck (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 30.
4. Charles Bally, “Le Style Indirect Libre en Français Moderne,” Germanisch romanaisch Monatsschrift IV (1912): 549–56, 597–606.
5. Mikhail M. Bakhtin, “Discourse in the Novel,” in The Dialogic Imagina tion, ed. Michael Holquist, trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981).
6. Brian McHale, “Free Indirect Discourse: A Survey of Recent Accounts,” PTL 3, no. 2: 249–87.
7. The examples McHale creates are revisions of lines from John Dos Passos’s U.S.A. (Modern Library, 1937): “She almost fainted when he started to make love to her…. No, No, she couldn’t just then, but the next day she’d drink in spite of the pledge she’d signed with the N.E.R. and shoot the moon” (405).
8. These theoreticians include Paul Hernadi, Dorrit Cohn, Brian McHale, V.N. Voloshinov, Seymour Chatman, Gerard Genette, and Shlomith Rimmon-Kenan.
9. Graham Hough, “Narrative Dialogue in Jane Austen,” Critical Quarterly 12, no. 3 (1970): 201–229.
10. M. M. Bakhtin, “L’Enonce Dans le Roman,” Languages 12 (1968): 126.
11. V. N. Voloshinov, Marxism and the Philosophy of Language, trans. Ladislaw Matejka and I. R. Titunik (New York, London: Seminar Press, 1973), 156.
12. In addition to the works cited below by these authors, other works that consider narrative and ethics include James Phelan, Narrative as Rhetoric: Technique, Audiences, Ethics, Ideology (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1996); Tobin Siebers, The Ethics of Criticism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988); and Gary Wihl and David Williams, eds., Literature and Ethics (Kingston, Ont.: McGillQueen’s University Press, 1988).
13. Wayne Booth, The Company We Keep: An Ethics of Fiction (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 3–7.
14. Booth, The Company We Keep, 17–19.
15. Booth, The Company We Keep, 17.
16. J. Hillis Miller, The Ethics of Reading (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987), 1.
17. Miller, The Ethics of Fiction, 127. 18. Adam Newton, Narrative Ethics (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995), 10.
19. Newton, Narrative Ethics, 11.