Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook

By Christopher G. Fairburn; Kelly D. Brownell | Go to book overview

96
Very-Low-Calorie Diets

THOMAS A. WADDEN

ROBERT I. BERKOWITZ

Very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) reached the height of their popularity in 1988, when Oprah Winfrey revealed to her 12 million viewers that she had lost 67 pounds by consuming a liquid supplement. Use of these diets, however, declined sharply a year later, when Ms. Winfrey announced that she had regained her lost weight and would “never diet again.” Now, more than a decade later, interest in liquid supplements is growing again. This chapter provides an overview of VLCDs and recommendations for their use.


OVERVIEW OF VLCDs

An expert panel convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recently defined low-calorie diets as those providing 800–1,200 kcal/day and VLCDs as providing < 800 kcal daily. These widely accepted definitions overlook a critical issue, which is the size of the energy deficit induced by a given diet in a given individual. It is inconsistent to require a short, obese woman with a daily energy expenditure of only 1,500 kcal/day to receive extensive medical monitoring while consuming a 700-kcal/day VLCD, and not an obese man with a daily energy expenditure of 3,000 kcal/day on a 1,200-kcal/ day low-calorie diet. The energy deficit, weight loss, and potential effects are far greater for the man, although he is not consuming a VLCD. This example illustrates the need to define a VLCD in terms of the energy requirements of the individual. Several investigators have suggested that a VLCD is any diet that provides ≤ 50% of an individual’s predicted resting energy requirements.

Regardless of how a VLCD is defined, restricting energy intake further below 800 kcal/day confers only marginal benefit. Three randomized, controlled trials found no significant differences in weight loss between diets providing 800 kcal/day and those with as

-534-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 632

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.