Like most scholars completing books that have taken years and dominated several phases of their lives, I am indebted to teachers, friends, and colleagues from a variety of institutions. I began this project as my dissertation in the Department of American Civilization at the University of Pennsylvania, where I had the good fortune to work with Professors Murray G. Murphey and Bruce Kuklick. Murray was an indefatigable teacher who taught me much of what I know about American history. Bruce was an exemplary dissertation adviser who not only turned around my chapters with stunning speed but taught me that an ethos of complexity is far more intellectually honest and interesting than a view that divides the world into good and evil forces. As I have moved this project from a thesis to book, he continued to engage my work, reminding me of the complexity imperative, and I know my book is much stronger because of it. I am grateful to both.
While at Penn, I was lucky to encounter many other gifted people who offered their ideas, encouragement, and, when possible, their financial support. Janice Radway provided stimulating early support for this study. Peshe Kuriloff helped me keep bread on my table, as did John Noakes, a fellow student of the national security state who shared ideas, wrangled funds for other graduate students, and organized dissertation reading groups and then speaking engagements in the world beyond Penn. John was an invaluable colleague for many Penn students in a variety of disciplines. Others generously shared their bread, spare futon couches, and encouragement—Stan Schmidt, Phil Kronebush and Kim Hallier, Lauren Turner, Janice and Bob Benedict, Deborah Franklin, Elizabeth Wilson, Lisa Null, and Jim Vogele— or their analytical and editorial services, including Doctor Ed O'Reilly (who spotted every mixed metaphor), Saul Cornell, Pam Sankar, Nancy Bercaw, and especially Nancy Bernhard. Nancy knows this book nearly as well as I, sees it with clearer eyes, and from the day years ago in Van Pelt Library when she told me to go home and start writing to her incisive reading of this book's conclusion several months ago, she has been a model colleague whose good humor, intelligence, knowledge, and supportive friendship have been