1. A number of scholars have looked to World War I as the starting point for U.S. concern with propaganda. They include Garth Jowett and Victorian O’Donnell, Propaganda and Persuasion, 2d ed. (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1992); Michael Schud– son, Discovering the News: A Social History of American Newspapers (New York: Basic, 1978); Holly Cowan Schulman, Voice of America: Propaganda and Democracy, 1941– 1045 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1990); Daniel Czitrom, Media and the American Mind: From Morse to McLuhan (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982); Terence Quaker, Opinion Control in the Democracies (New York: St. Martin's, 1985); Peter Buitenhaus, The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914–1933 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1987); J. Michael Sproule, Propaganda and Democracy: The American Experience of Media and Mass Persuasion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997); and Stuart Ewen, PR! A Social History of Spin (New York: Basic, 1996). In 1933 Ralph Lutz wrote a bibliographic essay on the matter, “Studies of World War Propaganda, 1914– 1933,” Journal of ‘Modern History 5 (December 1933): 496–516.
2. Lutz, “Studies of World War Propaganda.” For an excellent treatment of this postwar discovery, see Barry Alan Marks, “The Idea of Propaganda in America” (Ph.D. diss., University of Minnesota, 1957).
3. Lasswell uses the phrase “propaganda consciousness” in “The Study and Practice of Propaganda,” the introductory essay to Harold D. Lasswell, Ralph D. Casey, and Bruce Lannes Smith, eds., Propaganda and Promotional Activities: An Annotated Bibliography (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1935), pp. 1–27.
4. Harold D. Lasswell, “The Function of the Propagandist,” International Journal of Ethics 38, no. 3 (April 1928): 261.
5. Harold D. Lasswell, Propaganda Technique in the World War (1927; rpt., Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1971), p. 2.
6. Lasswell, Casey, and Smith, Propaganda and Promotional Activities. The bibliography was sponsored by the Social Science Research Council. In 1946 Smith, Lasswell, and Casey edited another bibliography, with introductory essays, entitled Propaganda, Communications, and Public Opinion (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1946).
7. Marks, “The Idea of Propaganda in America.” Marks refers to “some writers” using the label “Age of Propaganda” on p. 51; all the quotations are also drawn from this page.
8. Modern students of public opinion and propaganda generally begin with Lippmann's Public Opinion as the first significant post–WWI study of propaganda.