Teacher Evaluation to Enhance Professional Practice

By Charlotte Danielson; Thomas L. McGreal | Go to book overview

4
The Evaluative Criteria, or the “What”

The cornerstone of any evaluation system is the set of evaluative criteria on which a school or district bases its teacher evaluations. How should we judge a teacher's performance? Determining the criteria is not the same thing as developing an evaluation system; however, no evaluation system is complete without a set of clear, unambiguous criteria that, taken together, define good teaching.

What, then, constitutes excellence (or adequacy) in teaching? By what criteria do we define superior teaching? When a teacher earns a reputation in a community for being a wonderful educator, when administrators receive more requests for placement into that teacher's classes than they can handle, when a teacher is highly respected by colleagues—on what basis do people make such judgments? Do students in those classes have a lot of fun? Do they participate in exciting activities? Do they normally do extremely well on the state assessment?

Alternatively, when a teacher acquires a reputation, among both students and parents, for poor teaching, on what is that reputation based? It might reflect inconsistent or unfair grading standards, or the display of favoritism in classroom interactions. It might be a consequence of unclear explanations of concepts or procedures, so students don't have a good understanding of the content. Or, the reputation might develop over many years, if the students of a particular teacher consistently do poorly on a state's assessment. Clearly, when students, parents, and administrators make judgments about teaching, they base their assessment on evidence of performance. These judgments may be informal, but they are judgments nonetheless.


Inputs or Outputs?

Standards of teaching state what teachers should know and be able to do in the exercise of their profession. People express this concept in one of two fundamental ways: in terms of what teachers do, or in terms of the results they achieve. The former could be called “inputs”—an enumeration of teacher tasks reflecting all the complexity of the work. (These lists of tasks need not be checklists of specific types of behavior, but they identify all the different aspects of teaching that yield high levels of student learning.) The latter, on the other hand, can be considered “outputs”—the results teachers achieve in their work, for example in the extent of student learning or

-32-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Teacher Evaluation to Enhance Professional Practice
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 159

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.