commercial treaty that none of that drug should be sent by us to China, you must accede to it rather than risk any essential benefit by contending for a liberty in this respect, in which case the sale of our opium in Bengal must be left to take its chance in an open market, or to find a consumption in the dispersed and circuitous traffic of the Eastern seas. . . .
During your residence in China it will be an object highly worthy of your attention and best efforts, to endeavour to increase our exports to China as well in the assortments usually sent as in any other products or manufactures of Great Britain and of our Indian territories which might be favourably received by the Chinese. The Directors of the East India Company, who have ordered one of their ships to accompany the Embassy, have shipped on board a great variety of articles of British goods not for the purpose of sale, but to be dispersed and distributed by you in the most likely manner to excite a taste for, and establish the use of such articles in China. They have also shipped a great variety of patterns and specimens of our manufactures, that the Chinese may be able to judge from thence of their quality and perfection, and how far they may be adapted to their climate, taste and manners. . . .
It is possible that you may find it either necessary or expedient to touch upon the coast of Japan. That country produces tea as good as, and probably cheaper than that of China. The difficulties of trading there, which have so long deterred other nations from attempting it, are now said to have almost ceased. . . .
In the small but fertile kingdom of Cochin China not only tea but sugar in great abundance is said to be produced, and exported from thence at a cheaper rate than from any other part of the East or West Indies. The alarming increase in the price of the last article in Europe not only affects the lower class of the people, among whom it has become a necessary of life; but the public revenue, as well in its own diminished consumption, as in that of other taxable articles with which it is used. This consideration renders any country that is likely to supply the want of it at a reasonable rate an object of attention in the present instance. . . .
EAST INDIA COMPANY: COMMENTS ON LORD MACARTNEY'S INSTRUCTIONS, 9 September 17921
Directors are of the opinion that the Company's situation in China is greatly improved, and in [a] state of continual advancement. The exports to China from being at first very trifling, have risen nearly to the proportion of the imports from thence. Great caution will be____________________