CAPTAIN ARTHUR PHILLIP TO LORD SYDNEY, 28 February 17871
. . . As I would not wish convicts to lay the foundations of an empire, I think they should ever remain separated from the garrison, and other settlers that may come from Europe, and not be allowed to mix with them, even after the 7 or 14 years for which they are transported may be expired.
The laws of this country will, of course, be introduced in [New] South Wales, and there is one that I would wish to take place from the moment His Majesty's forces take possession of the country: That there can be no slavery in a free land, and consequently no slaves. . . .
NEW SOUTH WALES: INSTRUCTIONS FOR GOVERNOR PHILLIP, 25 April 17872
. . . And whereas we have by Our Commission, bearing date [ 2nd April 1787], given and granted unto you full power and authority to emancipate and discharge from their servitude any of the convicts under your superintendence3 who shall, from their good conduct and a disposition to industry, be deserving of favour: it is Our will and pleasure that in every such case you do issue your warrant to the Surveyor of Lands to make surveys of and mark out in lots such lands upon the said territory as may be necessary for their use; and when that shall be done, that you do pass grants thereof with all convenient speed to any of the said convicts so emancipated, in such proportions and under such conditions and acknowledgments as shall hereafter be specified, vizt:--To every male shall be granted 30 acres of land, and in case he shall be married, 20 acres more; and for every child who may be with them at the settlement at the time of making the said grant, a further quantity of ten acres, free of all fees, taxes, quit rents, or other acknowledgments whatsoever, for the space of ten years: provided that the person to whom the said land shall have been granted shall reside within the same and proceed to the cultivation and improvement thereof; reserving only to Us such timber as may be____________________
H.R.N.S.W., vol. i, pt. ii, p. 53.
C.O. 202/5, ff. 28-38. Printed in H.R.N.S.W., vol. i, pt. ii, pp. 85-91. Captain Arthur Phillip was probably selected because he had some knowledge of farming. The choice was certainly an admirable one. He returned to England in 1793, but continued to take a keen interest in New South Wales.
The initial consignment for Botany Bay consisted of 600 male and 180 female convicts.