Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization

By Geoffrey Zubay | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 13
SALMONELLA

Kira Morser

Rohit Puskoor

Geoffrey Zubay

Bacteria of the genus Salmonella account for the majority of food poisoning cases in the United States, with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimating 1.4 million cases annually. It is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that infects a wide variety of organisms, from lizards to humans. The main feature of salmonella pathogenesis is the type III secretion system (TTSS), a needle-like multiprotein complex that delivers toxic proteins to host cells. One of these proteins, SopB, causes the diarrhea characteristic of salmonella disease.

Salmonella infection results in either typhoid fever (if the individual is infected by the typhi or paratyphi serovars) or gastroenteritis (if infected by the enterditis serovar). Typhoid fever was a potent killer prior to the development of modern antibiotics. The pathogen’s weaponization potential and the severe gastrointestinal symptoms it inflicts on the majority of infected individuals have led to its classification as a Category B biological threat by the CDC.


HISTORY

Salmonella is believed to have killed many famous historical figures, most notably Alexander the Great and Prince Albert, the husband of Queen Victoria. The pathogen was identified in 1885 by the American veterinarian Dr. Daniel E. Salmon, for whom the pathogen is named.

In 1898—a little over a decade after Salmon’s isolation of the choleraesuis strain from the intestine of a pig—British surgeon Almroth E. Wright developed an antityphoid inoculation. The first salmonella vaccine consisted of a heat-denatured bacterium, a rudimentary killed-whole-cell vaccine, which was successfully used during World War I to reduce the number of soldiers who died from enteric fever.3 Despite this, the disease was not deemed to have a cure until the discovery of antibiotics in the twentieth century.

-277-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 364

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.