Black Soldiers in Blue: African American Troops in the Civil War Era

By John David Smith | Go to book overview

5
THE FORT PILLOW
MASSACRE
Assessing the Evidence

John Cimprich

At dawn on April 12,1864, a force of some 1,500 Confederates began a surprise attack on Fort Pillow, a post in Tennessee about fifty miles north of Memphis. The Federal garrison consisted of around 600 men. Detachments from the 6th U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery (USCHA) and the 2nd U.S. Colored Light Artillery composed about half of the garrison, while Major William F. Bradford's Tennessee Cavalry Battalion of white Unionists made up the rest. By 2:00 P.M. the outnumbered Federals had retreated to an inner fortification on a bluff above the Mississippi River, while the Confederates held ravines to the north and east as well as barracks cabins to the south. Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest, the Confederate commander, then called a truce to request the fort's surrender. Bradford, the Federal leader at that point, refused. Around 3:15 the Confederates charged and gained control of the fort. Controversy would arise about the subsequent events, which ended with almost half of the garrison dead. The survivors called it a massacre of men who tried to surrender; the Confederates claimed that the Federals refused to stop fighting or fleeing. Since 1973 most historians who have written about the incident have judged it a massacre.1 But during the Civil War the public learned about the event piecemeal over time—like an unfolding mystery story. In that fashion but with the larger pool of evidence available today, this essay offers a critical examination of the primary sources and their treatment by recent historians.

-150-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Black Soldiers in Blue: African American Troops in the Civil War Era
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 451

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.