Schools Betrayed: Roots of Failure in Inner-City Education

By Kathryn M. Neckerman | Go to book overview

CHAPTER FOUR

Racial Segregation and Inequality

The next three chapters examine school policy and practice in areas critical to the formation of inner-city schools. In all three policy areas—race, vocational education, and remedial education—significant changes occurred between 1900 and 1960. Chicago public school officials recognized a problem, then began to cast about for a solution, sometimes going through a period of experimentation. New practices were adopted, sometimes modified, and over time became part of the taken-for-granted framework of the urban schools. As we will see, many elements of these policies were at least nominally race neutral, but because they were implemented in a racially divided and unequal city, they had racially disparate consequences.

In this chapter, we consider a set of decisions that explicitly concerned race. They include districting and resource allocation for black and white students, as well as the policies and practices shaping race relations in the schools. The Chicago schools, like most other northern schools, were officially color-blind, yet over time they became racially segregated and unequal. This chapter traces the rise of segregation, the emergence of racial inequality in the schools, and the political controversies over these problems, along with the intercultural programs adopted in response to racial tensions. These developments had implications both for the quality of education in black schools and for the legitimacy and trust that black parents and children were willing to give to the schools.

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Schools Betrayed: Roots of Failure in Inner-City Education
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter One - Urban Decline 11
  • Chapter Two - Labor Markets 32
  • Chapter Three - Communities and Cultures 60
  • Chapter Four - Racial Segregation and Inequality 81
  • Chapter Five - Vocational Education 107
  • Chapter Six - Remedial Education 127
  • Chapter Seven - Classroom Dynamics 152
  • Conclusion 172
  • Appendix A - Quantitative Evidence 185
  • Appendix B - Some Historical Evidence About Language Styles and Schooling 193
  • Notes 197
  • Selected Bibliography 243
  • Index 253
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