In Chapter 1 we considered the ways in which advertising can influence our decisions by influencing the order in which we evoke or notice the options. Now let us turn to advertising and focus on how it influences our evaluation of brand alternatives.
Human beings have a remarkable capacity for seeing things in different ways. The same physical stimulus, the same product or service, if you will, can be seen in more than one way. Look at Figure 2.1 … is it a rabbit or a duck? It can be seen either way.
Look at the next figure, 2.2. Think of it as a brand. You should be able to see it in two different ways. When you see a vase in the figure your mind is seeing 'white figure on black background'. When you see two faces, your mind is seeing 'black figure on white background'. This white-on-black or black-on-white that you are using to make sense of what you see is called the frame of reference. You overlay a frame of reference on a stimulus to generate a perception.
Figure 2.2:A vase or two faces?
Figure 2.1:Is it a rabbit or a duck?1
A brand, company or service can also be perceived in different ways