1. Note, for example, Pierre Bourdieu, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984); John Fiske, Understanding Popular Culture (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1989); Paul Willis, Common Culture: Symbolic Work at Play in the Everyday Cultures of the Young (Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press, 1990).
2. I develop this theme in Time and Money: The Making of Consumer Culture (London: Routledge, 1993), ch. 5.
3. Jean Baudrillard, America (New York: Verso, 1988).
4. “Work, Work and More Work,” Washington Post, September 11,1999, A15.
5. Note, for example, Ellen Furlough, “Making Mass Vacations: Tourism and Consumer Culture in France, 1930s to 1970s,” Comparative Studies in Society & History 4o(2)(April 1998): 247-286; Victoria De Grazia, “Changing Consumption Regimes in Europe, 1930–1970,” in Susan Strasser, Charles McGovern, and Matthias Judt, eds., Getting and Spending: European and American Consumer Societies in the Twentieth Century (Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 59-84.
6. In very different ways, they all adapted to twentieth-century society by broadening their appeals. Revisionist socialism abandoned a doctrine narrowly based upon class to include a state that reconciled diverse interests. Even portions of the Right supported social welfare for citizens and promised dignity to many, if not all, members of the nation. And many liberals rejected rigid doctrines of laissez-faire for the public regulation of market excesses and guarantees of minimum labor and living standards. See, for example, James Kloppenberg, Uncertain Vic-