In Japan, after several hundred years of national seclusion, the reform that took place in 1868 brought the collapse of the feudal society dominated by samurai warriors and triggered the modernization and westernization of the country. However, because Japan's highest priority was to catch up with Europe and America, it was necessary to adopt a centralized system of government. To achieve this, politicians had to rely on the restoration of the Emperor System. Consequently, they established a militaristic nation rather than a democratic one. Although intellectual people protested this movement, Japan voluntarily marched into international disputes and wars.
Japan's democratization essentially started after World War II.1 Although the Emperor System collapsed (or became symbolic) after the war, the idea of a male-dominated society, a vestige of feudalism, was not immediately swept away. In fact, the idea of a male-dominated society still holds in today's Japanese society as an ethic of a feudal society, although it has been weathered over time. In other words, a husband is still implicitly allowed to hit his wife as a means of discipline. It is considered natural for a wife to obey her husband because she belongs to him. No other person is allowed to say anything about the husband's behavior, no matter how violent or unreasonable it may be. Marital (or domestic) violence is considered as a mere quarrel between husband and wife, rather than a crime. It is pointless to act as a mediator for a couple who are having a quarrel. Unless marital