Sports: A Reference Guide and Critical Commentary, 1980-1999

By Donald L. Deardorff II | Go to book overview

10
Sport: Science and Technology

The relationship between sport and science and technology dates back at least to Ancient Greece where physicians, called gymnasts, undertook the task of providing special care for athletes during competitions. During the Renaissance and the Enlightenment, scientists such as Galileo, who developed the first law of motion, and Sir Isaac Newton, who furthered Galileo's findings by explaining the properties of objects in motion, began to lay the groundwork upon which modern science would erect explanations for much of what transpires in sport, from curve balls, to measuring velocity, to figuring out what spin a golfer should put on a wedge shot out of the bunker. Today, we have become so accustomed to watching athletes use the latest technological developments in game equipment and training devices that it is easy to ignore the significance of those highly sophisticated improvements. A mere ten years ago, aging hockey players could not rejuvenate themselves in a hyperbaric chamber, quarterbacks could not talk to coaches via small communicators installed in their helmets, and golfers could not rely on the ten to twenty extra yards afforded by the latest titanium drivers. Advances in computer science and medicine have led to the development of machines that allow Olympic swimmers to analyze every movement they make during a race. If a stroke is even slightly altered from the desired position the computer image will identify it, allowing for immediate correction. Considering the advances in preparatory methods, including weight training and nutrition, it is no wonder that several Olympic swimming records fall every four years. Advances in sports medicine have been just as crucial for both amateur and professional athletes. Fifteen years ago, a knee injury might have meant the end of a professional career. Now, even severely injured knees and ankles can be reconstructed in a short time, allowing the athlete to return to action in only a few weeks in some cases. In addition, health care professionals concentrating in sport medicine have written several works dealing with injury prevention, rehabilitation, and nutrition for athletes of all ages.

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Sports: A Reference Guide and Critical Commentary, 1980-1999
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Introduction ix
  • 1: Sport and American History 1
  • 2: Sport: Business and Law 27
  • 3: Sport and Education 57
  • 4: Sport: Ethnicity and Race 97
  • 5: Sport and Gender 115
  • 6: Sport and Literature 137
  • 7: Sport: Philosophy and Religion 163
  • 8: Sport and Popular Culture 193
  • 9: Sport and Psychology 213
  • 10: Sport: Science and Technology 245
  • 11: Sport and Sociology 273
  • 12: Sport and World History 297
  • Appendix 1 - Important Events in American Sports: 1980–2000 325
  • Appendix 2 - Halls of Fame, Libraries, Museums, Periodicals, and Web Sites 335
  • Index 343
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