The following books and essays are useful for thinking about race as a concept: Robert Miles, Racism (London, 1989); Etienne Balibar and Immanuel Wallerstein, Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities (London, 1991); Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York, 1996); Sociological Theories, Race and Colonialism (Paris, 1980); Sander Gilman, Difference and Pathology, Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness (Ithaca, NY, and London, 1985); David Theo Goldberg (ed.), The Anatomy of Racism (Minneapolis and London, 1990); Frantz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks (New York, 1967). Edward W. Said, Orientalism (London, 1978) details the intellectual consequences of colonial thought. On the idea of nation, generally, as well as in early modern England, see Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities, Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London, 1991); Nira Yuval-Davis and Floya Anthias (eds.), Woman-Nation-State (London, 1989); Liah Greenfeld, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity (Cambridge, Mass., 1992); Richard Helgerson, Forms of Nationhood: The Elizabethan Writing of England (Chicago and London, 1992); and Jean Howard and Phyllis Rackin, Engendering a Nation (New York, 1997).
On race in the medieval and early modern periods, excellent starting points are Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31:1 (2001); and William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser., 54: 1 (Jan. 1997). Martin Bernal's Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization (New Brunswick, NJ, 1987) offers a revisionist account of classical Greece. For medieval contexts see also Robert Bartlett, The Making of Europe, Conquest, Colonization and Cultural Change 950—1350 (Princeton, 1993); The Postcolonial Middle Ages (New York, 2000); Dorothee Metlitzki, The Matter of Araby in Medieval England (New Haven and London, 1977); and David Nirenberg, Communities of Violence, Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages (Princeton, 1996). On blackness and differ- ence in the early modern period, see Peter Fryer, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (London, 1984); Eldred Jones, Othello's Countrymen (London, 1965); Anthony Barthelemy, Black Face, Maligned Race (Baton Rouge, La., 1987); Elliot H. Tokson, The Popular Image of the Black Man in English Drama 1550—1688 (Boston, 1982); Jack D'Amico, The Moor in English