Does God Belong in Public Schools?

By Kent Greenawalt | Go to book overview

Notes

CHAPTER 1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF AMERICAN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND RELIGION
1. Warren A. Nord, Religion and American Education 65 (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Pr., 1995. William C. Bower, Church and State in Education 23–24 (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1944), wrote that the church controlled education in the middle and northern colonies. In the South, charity schools were sponsored by the English Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. See also Harry M. Ward, Colonial America: 1607–1763 325 (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1991). According to Rosemary C. Salomone, Visions of Schooling: Con- science, Community, and Common Education 18 (New Haven: Yale Univ. Pr., 2000), schools generally were supported to some degree by tax revenues. But see Carl Kaestle, Pillars of the Republic: Common Schools and American Society, 1780–1860, at 4 (New York: Hill and Wang, 1983) (“Nowhere was schooling entirely tax supported or compulsory”).

As Stephen Macedo has noted, “The vast majority of Americans throughout the eighteenth century worked on family farms and lived in rural areas.” Stephen Macedo, Diversity and Distrust: Civic Education in a Multicultural Democracy 46 (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Pr., 2002). New York and Boston each had fewer than fifteen thousand residents in 1755, and Philadelphia, the largest city, had only twenty thousand. Id.

2. Macedo, Diversity and Distrust, note 1 supra, at 47.
3. Id. at 47–48.
4. Id. at 48–49.
5. Id. at 51.
6. Id. at 52, quoting Kaestle, Pillars of the Republic, note 1 supra, at 55–56.
7. Id. at 52–53.
8. Id. at 53.
9. Rosemary Salomone, “Common Schools, Uncommon Values: Listening to the Voices of Dissent,” 14 Yale L. & Pol'y Rev. 169, 174 (1996). For a summary of sources on Mann's life, see Robert Michaelson, Piety in the Public School 72–73 (New York: Macmillan, 1970). Not surprisingly, one consequence of the attempt to build a common culture for poor children of disparate heritages was to alienate students from the communal values of their parents. See Barbara Finkelstein, “Exploring Community in Urban Educational History,” in Ronald K. Goodenow and Diane Ravitch, eds., Schools in Cities: Consensus and Conflict in

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