The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions

By Margaret P. Munger | Go to book overview
of the senses in the realm of mind. The impact of these debates on Aristotle is evident in the last two books of his Metaphysics. A wholly independent discussion of the nature of number (without influence on Augustine) is in Plotinus 6. 6.
18. Cicero, De finibus 3. 10. 35; Tusculan Disputations 4. 6. 11.
19. Ennius, Iphigeneia, quoted by Cicero, On Divina tion 2. 30; Republic 1. 30.
20. For Augustine Adam was not merely the start of the human race, but the representative of humanity, so that “we are all Adam.”
21. From Cicero's Hortensius; cf. Tusculan Disputa tions 5. 28.
22. Plotinus 3. 5. 9. 47 writes of the sense of need, aspiration, and the memory of rational principles coming together in the soul to direct it towards the good.
23. Terence, Andria 68.
24. Echo of Plotinus 4. 4. 10. 5 (of time).
25. Augustine's Latin in this chapter is a work of high art, with rhymes and poetic rhythms not reproducible in translation. He is fusing imagery from the Song of Solomon with Neoplatonic reflection on Plato's Phaedrus and Symposium, and simultaneously summarizing the central themes of the Confessions. For the five spiritual senses see above x. vi (8).


Saint Thomas Aquinas (ca. 1224–1274) was traveling to his first assignment as a Domini-
can monk when he was kidnapped by order of his parents. It was not that the family ob-
jected to a religious career; in fact, they had enrolled Aquinas as a child in a Benedictine
abbey at Montes Cassino with hopes that he would become a monk, and eventually a
powerful abbot. The Dominicans, however, were a relatively new order with an emphasis
on preaching Christian doctrine and teaching, rejecting the temporal wealth associated
with some of the other orders. In 1245, after a year's captivity, Aquinas was finally allowed
to continue his journey to Paris, where he began to study with Albertus Magnus, the mag-
nificent scholar who five centuries later was declared the patron saint of those who study
the natural sciences. The writings of Aristotle (p. 20) were just becoming known in Europe,
preserved through the previous centuries by Muslim scholars; and it was in Paris, with Al-
bertus Magnus, that Aquinas began his study of “the Philosopher.” Aquinas traveled
throughout his career, teaching and working at various Dominican houses and universities.
He earned his master of theology from the University of Paris in 1256 and returned to Paris
in 1268 as debate was escalating regarding whether the faithful Christian should integrate
or reject Aristotelian philosophy. In 1274, Aquinas was summoned to the second Council
of Lyons, an attempt to reunite the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches, but fell
ill on the journey and died at the Cistercian abbey of Fossanova, near present-day Terraci-
na, Papal States.

Excerpts from St. Thomas Aquinas, “Book 5, Human Nature—Embodied Spirit. Human Abilities—Bodily and Spiritual. How
Man Knows.” In T. McDermott (Ed.), St. Thomas Aquinas Summa theologiae (pp. 108–142). Allen, TX: Christian Classics, 1989.
(Original work published 1265)


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The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Part 1 - What is the Mind? 1
  • 1: Plato 2
  • 2: Hippocrates 4
  • 3: Aristotle 20
  • 4: Saint Augustine of Hippo 35
  • 5: Saint Thomas Aquinas 46
  • Part 2 - Mechanisms of Mind 67
  • 6: René Descartes 68
  • 7: John Locke 81
  • 8: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 96
  • 9: David Hume 113
  • 10: Immanuel Kant 127
  • Part 3 - Scientific Methods 141
  • 11: Gustav Theodor Fechner 142
  • 12: Hermann Von Helmholtz 154
  • 13: Hermann Ebbinghaus 168
  • 14: Ivan Pavlov 178
  • Part 4 - Emotion and Instinct in Animals and Humans 187
  • 15: Charles Darwin 188
  • 16: Margaret Floy Washburn 203
  • 17: William James 215
  • 18: Francis Galton 232
  • Part 5 - Human Development 249
  • 19: Milicent W. Shinn 250
  • 20: Sigmund Freud 258
  • 21: Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon 270
  • 22: Hugo Münsterberg 288
  • Part 6 - What is the Goal of Psychology? 295
  • 23: Wilhelm Wundt 296
  • 24: Max Wertheimer 308
  • 25: E. B. Titchener 324
  • Part 7 - Learning 331
  • 26: John B. Watson 332
  • 27: Edward C. Tolman 341
  • 28: D. O. Hebb 357
  • Part 8 - Cognition 367
  • 29: Jean Piaget 368
  • 30: L. S. Vygotski 387
  • 31: B. F. Skinner 399
  • 32: Noam Chomsky 408
  • 33: Sir Frederic C. Bartlett 430
  • 34: Ulric Neisser 447
  • Part 9 - Considerations of Context 467
  • 35: James J. Gibson 468
  • 36: James L. Mcclelland, David E. Rumelhart, and Geoffrey E. Hinton 478
  • 37: V. S. Ramachandran and Sandra Blakeslee 492
  • Bibliography of Readings 511
  • Bibliography of Biographical References 513


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