The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions

By Margaret P. Munger | Go to book overview

9
DAVID HUME
only do we receive images and traces in the brain, but we form new ones from them when we bring “complex ideas” to mind; and so the screen which represents our brain must be active and elastic. This analogy would explain reasonably well what goes on in the brain. As for the soul, which is a simple substance or 'monad': without being extended it represents these various extended masses and has perceptions of them.
NOTES
1. excite ou détermine plutôt.
2. Locke: 'Preserver of things, who never'. Coste's expansion.
3. Locke: “sensible of it.” Coste's change.
4. Added by Leibniz.
5. Locke: 'is'. Coste's change.
6. Added by Leibniz.
7. Added by Leibniz.
8. Locke: “complex.” Coste's change.
9. Locke: “idea.”
10. Leibniz's “répugnance” could mean either “reluctance” or “logical impossibility,” but the latter does not fit the context. There are other indications, too, that Leibniz wants this passage to have an anthropomorphic tone.
11. Added by Leibniz, as is the following parenthetical phrase.
12. Added by Leibniz.
13. Locke: “which convey themselves into.”
14. The content of this paragraph was dropped after the third edition of the Essay, but retained by Coste.
15. This refers to Locke's §16.
16. Locke: “it takes no notice.” Coste: “il ne s'aperçoit en aucune manière.
17. Locke: “the judgment … alters the appearances into their causes.” Coste: “nous mettons … à la place de ce qui nous paraît, la cause même de l'image … joignant à la vision un jugement que nous confondons avec elle.” The clause “joignant … elle,” which may be based on Locke's §9, is contracted by Leibniz to “et confondons le jugement avec la vision.
18. Locke says this in § 11.
19. Added by Coste.
20. Locke: “those simple ideas.”
21. Locke: “with this additional perception annexed to them, that it has had them before.” Coste's change.
22. Locke: “Of discerning, and other operations of the mind.”
23. esprit,” which means both “wit” and “mind.” Locke in §2 is contrasting “judgment” with “wit.”
24. Presumably referring to Locke's §11, though that speaks of beasts which can “pronounce words distinctly enough,” not of ones which can “talk.”
25. Locke: “do some of them in certain instances.” Coste's omission.
26. Locke uses the now obsolete word “naturals.”
27. Locke: “resemblances.” Coste's change.
28. Locke: “pictures.” Coste's change.
29. espèces”—i.e. the “sensible species” which Leibniz declares to be tolerable when understood as here.

9
DAVID HUME

David Hume (1711–1776) set himself the unreasonable goal of producing for philosophy
what Sir Issac Newton had articulated for physics—a clear, unifying set of laws with pre-
dictive power. A Treatise of Human Nature, the product of a four-year retreat in France fol-
lowing college at the University of Edinburgh, was not well received; so Hume needed to

-113-

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The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Part 1 - What is the Mind? 1
  • 1: Plato 2
  • 2: Hippocrates 4
  • 3: Aristotle 20
  • 4: Saint Augustine of Hippo 35
  • 5: Saint Thomas Aquinas 46
  • Part 2 - Mechanisms of Mind 67
  • 6: René Descartes 68
  • 7: John Locke 81
  • 8: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 96
  • 9: David Hume 113
  • 10: Immanuel Kant 127
  • Part 3 - Scientific Methods 141
  • 11: Gustav Theodor Fechner 142
  • 12: Hermann Von Helmholtz 154
  • 13: Hermann Ebbinghaus 168
  • 14: Ivan Pavlov 178
  • Part 4 - Emotion and Instinct in Animals and Humans 187
  • 15: Charles Darwin 188
  • 16: Margaret Floy Washburn 203
  • 17: William James 215
  • 18: Francis Galton 232
  • Part 5 - Human Development 249
  • 19: Milicent W. Shinn 250
  • 20: Sigmund Freud 258
  • 21: Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon 270
  • 22: Hugo Münsterberg 288
  • Part 6 - What is the Goal of Psychology? 295
  • 23: Wilhelm Wundt 296
  • 24: Max Wertheimer 308
  • 25: E. B. Titchener 324
  • Part 7 - Learning 331
  • 26: John B. Watson 332
  • 27: Edward C. Tolman 341
  • 28: D. O. Hebb 357
  • Part 8 - Cognition 367
  • 29: Jean Piaget 368
  • 30: L. S. Vygotski 387
  • 31: B. F. Skinner 399
  • 32: Noam Chomsky 408
  • 33: Sir Frederic C. Bartlett 430
  • 34: Ulric Neisser 447
  • Part 9 - Considerations of Context 467
  • 35: James J. Gibson 468
  • 36: James L. Mcclelland, David E. Rumelhart, and Geoffrey E. Hinton 478
  • 37: V. S. Ramachandran and Sandra Blakeslee 492
  • Bibliography of Readings 511
  • Bibliography of Biographical References 513
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