The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions

By Margaret P. Munger | Go to book overview
7. sciousness” has just as little to do with improvement in thought processes. Since, according to my view, thought processes are really motor habits in the larynx, improvements, short cuts, changes, etc., in these habits are brought about in the same way that such changes are produced in other motor habits. This view carries with it the implication that there are no reflective processes (centrally initiated processes): The individual is always examining objects, in the one case objects in the now accepted sense, in the other their substitutes, viz., the movements in the speech musculature. From this it follows that there is no theoretical limitation of the behavior method. There remains, to be sure, the practical difficulty, which may never be overcome, of examining speech movements in the way that general bodily behavior may be examined.]


Edward Chace Tolman (1886–1959) and his brother, Richard, were expected to follow in
their father's footsteps, and while they each did attend the Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology, as their father had before them, neither went into the family business. Richard con-
tinued in chemistry and physics, demonstrating that it is the electron that carries the charge
in the flow of electricity. Edward found philosophy and psychology more intriguing, fol-
lowing summer courses at Harvard from Robert Yerkes. He enrolled at Harvard and
worked with Hugo Munsterberg (p. 288), earning his Ph.D. in 1915. His first job was as an
instructor at Northwestern University, where he found the classroom intimidating. In 1918,
Tolman lost his job, ostensibly because of his lack of classroom prowess; however, the
publication date of an essay articulating his pacifist position and the entry of the United
States into World War I complicates the tale. He was then offered a job at the University of
California at Berkeley. During World War II, Tolman served in the Office of Strategic Ser-
vices, the precursor to today's Central Intelligence Agency. In 1949, Berkeley asked its fac-
ulty to sign a loyalty oath, an idea made popular by Senator Joseph R. McCarthy's unsub-
stantiated claims of communist infiltration of the U.S. government. Tolman refused to sign
and encouraged other senior faculty to protest, since they were ones for whom such ac-
tions would involve less personal and financial risk. He was suspended from his duties at
Berkeley but was invited to teach at Harvard University and the University of Chicago. Lat-
er Berkeley reinstated Tolman after admitting he had been correct to reject the loyalty oath
and awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1959. Just before his death, Tolman wrote, “I
have liked to think about psychology in ways that have proved congenial to me… In the
end, the only sure criterion is to have fun. And I have had fun.”


I shall devote the body of this paper to a description of experiments with rats. But I shall also attempt in a few words at the close to indicate the significance of these findings on rats for the clinical behavior of men. Most of the rat investigations, which I shall report, were carried out in the Berkeley laboratory. But I shall also include,

From Edward C. Tolman, “Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men.” Psychological Review 55 (1948):189–208.


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The History of Psychology: Fundamental Questions
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • Part 1 - What is the Mind? 1
  • 1: Plato 2
  • 2: Hippocrates 4
  • 3: Aristotle 20
  • 4: Saint Augustine of Hippo 35
  • 5: Saint Thomas Aquinas 46
  • Part 2 - Mechanisms of Mind 67
  • 6: René Descartes 68
  • 7: John Locke 81
  • 8: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz 96
  • 9: David Hume 113
  • 10: Immanuel Kant 127
  • Part 3 - Scientific Methods 141
  • 11: Gustav Theodor Fechner 142
  • 12: Hermann Von Helmholtz 154
  • 13: Hermann Ebbinghaus 168
  • 14: Ivan Pavlov 178
  • Part 4 - Emotion and Instinct in Animals and Humans 187
  • 15: Charles Darwin 188
  • 16: Margaret Floy Washburn 203
  • 17: William James 215
  • 18: Francis Galton 232
  • Part 5 - Human Development 249
  • 19: Milicent W. Shinn 250
  • 20: Sigmund Freud 258
  • 21: Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon 270
  • 22: Hugo Münsterberg 288
  • Part 6 - What is the Goal of Psychology? 295
  • 23: Wilhelm Wundt 296
  • 24: Max Wertheimer 308
  • 25: E. B. Titchener 324
  • Part 7 - Learning 331
  • 26: John B. Watson 332
  • 27: Edward C. Tolman 341
  • 28: D. O. Hebb 357
  • Part 8 - Cognition 367
  • 29: Jean Piaget 368
  • 30: L. S. Vygotski 387
  • 31: B. F. Skinner 399
  • 32: Noam Chomsky 408
  • 33: Sir Frederic C. Bartlett 430
  • 34: Ulric Neisser 447
  • Part 9 - Considerations of Context 467
  • 35: James J. Gibson 468
  • 36: James L. Mcclelland, David E. Rumelhart, and Geoffrey E. Hinton 478
  • 37: V. S. Ramachandran and Sandra Blakeslee 492
  • Bibliography of Readings 511
  • Bibliography of Biographical References 513


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