Philosophy for the 21st Century: A Comprehensive Reader

By Steven M. Cahn | Go to book overview

PHILOSOPHY FOR THE
21ST CENTURY
A Comprehensive Reader

Edited by
Steven M. Cahn
City University of New York Graduate Center

Associate Editors

Delia Graff Cornell University

Robin Jeshion Yale University

L. A. Paul University of Arizona

Jesse J. Prinz University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Stuart Rachels University of Alabama

Gabriela Sakamoto Mount Saint Mary's College

David Sosa University of Texas at Austin

Cynthia A. Stark University of Utah

New York   Oxford

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

2003

-i-

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Philosophy for the 21st Century: A Comprehensive Reader
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents iii
  • Preface viii
  • About the Editors ix
  • Introduction 1
  • The Elements of Logic 5
  • Part 1 - Philosophy of Religion 11
  • Euthyphro 13
  • The Ontological Argument 24
  • In Behalf of the Fool 26
  • Critique of the Ontological Argument 27
  • Is Existence a Predicate? 28
  • Why the Ontological Argument Fails 32
  • Five Ways to Prove the Existence of God 35
  • The Cosmological Argument 37
  • Dialogues concerning Natural Religion 39
  • Why God Allows Evil 72
  • The Moriarty Hypothesis 80
  • The Will to Believe 82
  • William James and the Will to Believe 89
  • The Hiddenness of God 93
  • Part 2 - Epistemology 99
  • Meditations on First Philosophy 101
  • An Essay concerning Human Understanding 110
  • Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous 115
  • Proof of an External World 137
  • On Certainty 140
  • The Problem of the Criterion 152
  • Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? 161
  • Discrimination and Perceptual Knowledge 163
  • Knowledge and Scepticism 176
  • The Raft and the Pyramid: Coherence versus Foundations in the Theory of Knowledge 188
  • Elusive Knowledge 205
  • Epistemology Naturalized 220
  • What Is “naturalized Epistemology”? 229
  • Part 3 - Philosophy of Science 239
  • An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding 241
  • The Traditional Problem of Induction 245
  • The Inference to the Best Explanation 249
  • The Experimental Method 254
  • Aspects of Scientific Explanation 257
  • The Truth Doesn't Explain Much 265
  • The New Riddle of Induction 269
  • The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 274
  • Realism and the Theory-Dependence of Experimental Design 279
  • Part 4 - Metaphysics 287
  • On the Relations of Universals and Particulars 290
  • Properties 300
  • The Doctrine of Arbitrary Undetached Parts 308
  • Many, but Almost One 320
  • Of Identity and Diversity 330
  • Personal Identity and Memory 337
  • Personal Identity 345
  • Of Motion 358
  • Achilles and the Tortoise 362
  • Of the Idea of Necessary Connection 369
  • Causation 377
  • The Sea-Battle Tomorrow 385
  • The Problem of Future Contingencies 387
  • Freedom and Necessity 401
  • Human Freedom and the Self 407
  • Alternative Possibilities and Moral Responsibility 414
  • The Incompatibility of Free Will and Determinism 420
  • Part 5 - Philosophy of Mind 429
  • Meditations on First Philosophy 432
  • The Causes of Behavior 438
  • Sensations and Brain Processes 443
  • The Mind-Body Problem 451
  • Computing Machinery and Intelligence 460
  • Can Computers Think? 475
  • The “causal Power” of Machines 482
  • Functionalism, Qualia, and the Inverted Spectrum 485
  • Epiphenomenal Qualia 490
  • Jackson's Knowledge Argument 495
  • Consciousness Explained 498
  • Part 6 - Philosophy of Language 503
  • On Sense and Meaning 506
  • On Denoting 512
  • Naming and Necessity 518
  • Thoughts 525
  • The Problem of the Essential Indexical 532
  • Performative Utterances 541
  • Logic and Conversation 547
  • Part 7 - Ethics 559
  • The Subjectivity of Values 561
  • A Critique of Mackie 568
  • A Proof of the Objectivity of Morals 570
  • Utilitarianism 575
  • The Experience Machine 580
  • Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals 582
  • A Simplified Account of Kant's Ethics 587
  • The Right and the Good 589
  • The Challenge of Cultural Relativism 594
  • Egoism and Moral Scepticism 603
  • Nicomachean Ethics 610
  • After Virtue 619
  • Living Ethically 633
  • The Conscience of Huckleberry Finn 642
  • Moral Luck 650
  • The Punishment That Leaves Something to Chance 657
  • Rich and Poor 661
  • Equality, Entitlements, and the Distribution of Income 675
  • Kantian Deliberations on Famine Problems 685
  • Why We Have No Obligations to Animals 688
  • Constraints and Animals 689
  • The Moral Argument for Vegetarianism 690
  • Do Animals Have Rights? 696
  • Part 8 - Political Philosophy 703
  • Leviathan 705
  • Second Treatise of Government 713
  • A Theory of Justice 720
  • Anarchy, State, and Utopia 731
  • Illusions about Private Property and Freedom 741
  • The Procedural Republic and the Unencumbered Self 751
  • Markets in Women's Sexual Labor 759
  • Part 9 - Philosophy of Art 775
  • The Role of Theory in Aesthetics 777
  • Defining Art 784
  • The End of Art 788
  • Glaring Omissions in Traditional Theories of Art 799
  • Of the Standard of Taste 813
  • Critique of Judgment 823
  • Categories of Art 832
  • The Very Idea of Art 846
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