Diet, Life Expectancy, and Chronic Disease: Studies of Seventh-Day Adventists and Other Vegetarians

By Gary E. Fraser | Go to book overview

2
Coronary Heart Disease Rates
among Adventists and Others

Deaths from coronary heart disease have decreased by half or more in the United States over the last 30 years (Gillum, 1993; Havlik and Feinleib, 1979). Despite this, it is still a major killer in the United States and most Western countries, as well as being leading cause of morbidity. Among the manifestations of this disease are myocardial infarction (heart attack), sudden death, congestive heart failure, serious arrhythmia, and angina pectoris.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a consequence of the atherosclerotic process as it affects the coronary arteries and thus diminishes the blood and oxygen supply to the heart muscle. Atherosclerosis is an accumulation of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, collagen, and inflammatory cells beneath the lining of arteries (Ross, 1993). We now understand that this process depends on higher values of LDL cholesterol and a relatively oxidizing environment (Witztum, 1994). The oxidized LDL cholesterol filters into the artery wall and tends to remain there, forming a plaque that may protrude into the open space (lumen) of the artery.

The cholesterol deposits provoke an inflammatory response that may weaken the integrity of this fatty mass, allowing it to rupture into the bloodstream. Then a clot, or thrombus, often forms at this site and completely closes the artery, resulting in the death of a portion of the heart muscle supplied by that artery—a myocardial infarction. The disorganization of electrical activity in the heart produced either by the scar from a heart attack or by the decreased supply of oxygen to the surviving heart muscle may provoke serious arrhythmia or even sudden death.

Lifestyle choices, particularly dietary habits and cigarette smoking, can alter this cascade of events at several points by changing the levels of blood cholesterol (Criqui et al., 1980; Jacobs et al., 1979); the oxidation state of the blood (Gilligan et al., 1994; Morrow et al., 1995); and the likelihood

-21-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Diet, Life Expectancy, and Chronic Disease: Studies of Seventh-Day Adventists and Other Vegetarians
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 371

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.