1. Collected in Pete Seeger and Bob Reiser, eds., Everybody Says Freedom: A History of the Civil Rights Movement in Songs and Pictures. (New York: Norton, 1989), 117–18.
2. Damon Stetson, “President Notes Racial Progress,” New York Times, September 16, 1963.
3. See John Sekora, Until Justice Rolls Down: The Birmingham Church Bombing Case (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1991).
4. The recent reopening of the case (and attendant publicity) is suggestive of how this event still has powerful resonance. See, for instance, David J. Garrow, “Back to Birmingham,” Newsweek, July 21, 1997, 37.
5. Harold Cruse, The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual (New York: Morrow, 1967), 456–57.
6. “The Black Arts Movement,” in Visions of a Liberated Future: Black Arts Movement Writings (New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1989), 64.
7. “The Fire Next Time,” The Price of the Ticket: Collected Non-Fiction, 1948–1985 (New York: St. Martin's, 1985), 371–73.
8. “The Novel as a Function of American Democracy,” in Going to the Territory (New York: Vintage, 1986), 318–19.
9. “Black Studies: Bringing Back the Person,” in Civil Wars (Boston: Beacon Press, 1981), 48–49.
10. Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 46.
11. Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880–1920 (New York: Pantheon, 1981).
12. See David Howard-Pitney, The Afro-American Jeremiad (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990). Howard-Pitney writes: “The ebb and flow of optimism about American promise and progress is a pervasive motif in this analysis, affording much inner drama behind these figures' public words. Douglass, Du Bois, and King in particular vacillated with regard to America's perfectibility. Their rhetoric reveals that the intractability of white racism could plunge them into profound crises of faith and that they struggled often at cost of great personal turmoil, to sustain a vision of America's democratic promise” (16). My project is to reveal some of this “inner drama” at a particular historic moment. My shared interest with Howard-Pitney might be traced to the influence of Sacvan Bercovitch's The American Jeremiad (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978), especially chapter 5, “Rituals of Consensus.”
13. Houston Baker, Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).
14. It is usually assented to in a general way, but the impact of the founding of Black Studies programs on the contemporary discourse of multiculturalism (and its associated curricular reform projects) deserves careful study. While these programs were certainly concerned with the diversification of university faculty and an attempt to gain real power within institutions of higher learning, in other ways they