France: The Dark Years, 1940-1944

By Julian Jackson | Go to book overview

11
Propaganda, Policing,
and Administration

Balkanization

Assessing the impact of the Occupation on the French population is difficult because a unified France no longer existed: there were at least six Frances. First, the Unoccupied Zone covering 45 per cent of French territory and about a third of the population. Secondly, the tiny Italian Zone (extended after November 1942). Thirdly, Alsace-Lorraine which had been effectively annexed by Germany and was run by two Gauleiter: the two départements of Alsace were attached to the Gau of Baden, and Moselle in Lorraine was attached to the Gau of Saar-Palatinate. Fourthly, the two départements of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais (zone rattachée) were attached to the German military command in Brussels. Fifthly, there was the Forbidden Zone (Zone interdite) or Reserved Zone (Zone réservée), comprising a total of six départements and part of four others, running from the mouth of the Somme in the north down to the Swiss frontier in the Jura. This area was separated from the rest of the Occupied Zone by another demarcation line, and refugees who had fled from it during the Exodus were not allowed back. Finally, there was the rest of the Occupied Zone.1

To these six Frances, one could add three more. From April 1941, another 'forbidden zone' about 20 kilometres deep ran along the coast from Dunkirk

1 There was some terminological variation in the designation of these zones. The terms Reserved and
Forbidden Zone were often used interchangeably, and the line separating this area from the rest of France
was variously called 'Green Line', 'Führer Line', or Nordostlinie. Confusion has persisted ever since. Some
books distinguish a smaller Forbidden Zone, comprising part of the Somme, Aisne, and Ardennes
départements, from a larger Reserved Zone, stretching from the Ardennes to the Jura. Even if contempor-
ary usage sometimes gives credence to this view, in reality this extra line never seems to have existed on
the ground. The local historian of the Ardennes, e.g., while insisting on the importance of the line divid-
ing the Reserved/Forbidden Zone from the rest of the Occupied Zone, which ran through the départe-
ment, has nothing to say about any division between the Reserved and Forbidden Zones although, if such
a division had existed, the line would also have run through the département. See J. Vadon, Les Ardennes
dans la guerre 1939–1945 (Le Coteau, 1985), 63. What does seem to be true, however, is that in the north
of the Forbidden Zone, near to the Nord/Pas-de-Calais, German control was more oppressive than further
south.

-246-

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France: The Dark Years, 1940-1944
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Maps and Figure xvi
  • Abbreviations xvii
  • Introduction: Historians and the Occupation 1
  • Part I - Anticipations 21
  • 1: The Shadow of War: Cultural Anxieties and Modern Nightmares 27
  • 2: Rethinking the Republic: 1890-1934 43
  • 3: Class War/Civil War 65
  • 4: The German Problem 81
  • 5: The Daladier Moment: Prelude to Vichy or Republican Revival? 97
  • 6: The Debacle 112
  • Part II - The Regime: National Revolution and Collaboration 137
  • 7: The National Revolution 142
  • 8: Collaboration 166
  • 9: Collaborationism 190
  • 10: Laval in Power: 1942–1943 213
  • Part III - Vichy, the Germans, and the French People 237
  • 11: Propaganda, Policing, and Administration 246
  • 12: Public Opinion, Vichy, and the Germans 272
  • 13: Intellectuals, Artists, and Entertainers 300
  • 14: Reconstructing Mankind 327
  • 15: Vichy and the Jews 354
  • Part IV - The Resistance 383
  • 16: The Free French 1940-1942 389
  • 17: The Resistance 1940-1942 402
  • 18: De Gaulle and the Resistance 1942 427
  • 19: Power Struggles 1943 447
  • 20: Resistance in Society 475
  • 21: Remaking France 506
  • Part V - Liberation and After 525
  • 22: Towards Liberation: January to June 1944 529
  • 23: Liberations 544
  • 24: A New France? 570
  • Epilogue: Remembering the Occupation 601
  • Appendix: The Camps of Vichy France 633
  • Bibliographical Essay 637
  • Index 647
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