This book could not have been written without the advice and assistance of a large number of individuals in governments and international organizations in different parts of the world who helped me to locate information, clarified points of difficulty, discussed the underlying issues, and in some cases read and commented on parts of the text. To all of them I am grateful, even if they must be covered by an agreed general cloak of anonymity.
Among the named, I should first thank the British Ministry of Defence, my employers, who suggested unbidden that I should write this book and paid my salary and expenses while I did so. I would particularly like to thank Simon Webb, then director general of operational policy, and Andrew Mathewson, then head of the Balkans directorate, for encouraging me in this direction.
Mats Berdal, director of studies at the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) at the time, suggested that I might find a temporary home at IISS, and I am grateful to him, to the director, Dr. John Chipman, and to all their colleagues for making my stay so pleasant. In the general atmosphere of intellectual stimulation that prevailed, I would like to single out Nomi BarYaacov and Spyros Economides for their personal kindness as well as their intellectual input. Over the road, at the Department of War Studies at King's College, University of London, Beatrice Heuser once again read a manuscript of mine with care and attention and made many suggestions for improvement. I also benefited very much—as I have in the past—from the knowledge and insights of James Gow and Jan Willem Honig, two of that very small group of individuals who combine a sound academic foundation in these issues with practical experience of them.
Adam Roberts of the University of Oxford was kind enough to read the text in its final form and to comment on it in some detail. He thereby saved