Origins of the
A DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL OF EMOTIONS
THE TWO TYPES OF EMBARRASSMENT: EXPOSURE VS. EVALUATION
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN EXPOSURE-EMBARRASSMENT
To understand what follows, two case studies are briefly presented:
Victoria is a pretty 3-year-old. When she enters the laboratory she clings to her
mother, hiding her head in her skirt when she is spoken to. When asked her name,
she does not reply. She readily finishes a puzzle given to her by a research assistant
and when complimented about how well she did, Victoria smiles, turns her head,
blushes, and moves toward her mother to hold her hand.
Natasha is also a pretty 3-year-old. She comes into the laboratory without her
mother, looks around the room and starts to play. She, too, finishes the puzzle and
when complimented, shows a big smile. However, when she gets up from the table,
she knocks over a glass and it breaks as it falls to the ground. She sees what she has
done, smiles sheepishly, turns away, blushes, and touches her dress nervously.
Both children have shown signs of embarrassment; that is, they blushed, smiled, turned away, and engaged in self-stimulation (Lewis, 1989). Somehow, though, these examples seem different. In this chapter, we will explore this difference, but before doing so we will need to outline a developmental model in regard to emotional development, showing the development of a sense of self, a meta-