in order of appearance
Jean-Baptiste Denis (c1640–1704)
Mathematician, astronomer, philosopher and part-time medic. History records him as the first person to transfuse blood into a human being.
Louis XIV (1638–1715)
The 'Sun King' of France who came to the throne at the age of five and oversaw an exciting phase of French artistic and academic life.
Son of the First President of the Parliament of Paris, Guillaume de Lamoignon (1617–1677) and Denis' lawyer.
Henri Louis Habert de Montmor (c1600–1679)
Wealthy French patron of early scientific research.
Louis Charles d'Albert Duke de Luynes (1620–1690)
Distinguished writer with interests in natural philosophy as well as being a French dignatory.
Charles de Chaulnes (1625–1698)
René Descartes (1596–1650)
French philosopher and mathematician, usually seen as the father of modern philosophy.
Girard Desargues (1591–1661)
Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655)
French mathematician, physicist and religious philosopher who was a strong advocate of the experimental approach to science. He was an early critic of Descartes.