Handbook of Cognition and Emotion

By Tim Dalgleish; Mick J. Power | Go to book overview

Chapter 14
Prospective Cognitions

Andrew K. MacLeod
Royal Holloway College, University of London, Egham, UK

Plans, goals, expectancies, hopes, fears, dread and apprehension: these are just some of the many terms that exist for describing mental states that all have as their focus some future state of affairs. A quick glance at these terms reveals that many of them have a strong affective quality, and this chapter will be concerned with understanding these future-orientated, or prospective, cognitive-affective states and their relation to emotional disturbance. Prospective cognitions vary along many dimensions other than the affective dimension, such as the extent to which a goal is abstract rather than concrete, the degree to which a plan to achieve a goal is specific rather than general, and the extent to which expectancies about the future are represented at the level of conscious awareness, as opposed to unconscious assumptions (Austin & Vancouver, 1996; Emmons, 1992). Some of these dimensions, as will become apparent, are particularly important when considering the relationship between prospective cognitions and emotional disorders.

The study of prospective cognitions and their relation to emotion has been relatively neglected when compared with the study of other cognitive processes, such as memory or attention. Perhaps one reason for this relative neglect is psychology's preference for natural science-like, causal explanations of human behaviour and experience, rather than teleological accounts which explain behaviour by reference to mental representations about the future, such as goals, plans and expectations. However, there has been a lineage of teleologically minded theorists, such as McDougall and Tolman (Valentine, 1992) and some theorists have tried to integrate causal and teleological accounts in terms of selfregulating cybernetic systems (Miller, Galanter & Pribram, 1960; Carver & Scheier, 1990). The issue will not be addressed directly in this chapter, but it is an assumption of the chapter that prospective cognitions are important in influencing behaviour.

-267-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Handbook of Cognition and Emotion
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 850

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.