The primary sources for this study have been original documents found in university, state, and national archives, as indicated by the notes. The most useful guides to these sources have been Kenneth W. Munden and Henry Putner Beers's Guide to Federal Archives Relating to the Civil War (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1962) and Henry Putner Beers's Guide to the Archives of the Government of the Confederate States of America(Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1968), which are enhancements of internal guides used within the National Archives. Most Confederate government documents are housed within the National Archives Record Group 109. John R. Sellers has compiled Civil War Manuscripts: A Guide to the Collections in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1986), a similar list of holdings in the Library of Congress.
Among many guides to university archives, one that stands out for its completeness and detail is Richard C. Davis and Linda Angle Miller's Guide to the Cataloged Collections in the Manuscript Department of the William R. Perkins Library, Duke University (Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio Books, 1980). Also useful are Susan Sokil Blosser and Clyde Norman Wilson Jr.'s The Southern Historical Collection: A Guide to Manuscripts (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Library, 1970) and Allen H. Stokes Jr.'s A Guide to the Manuscript Collection of the South Caroliniana Library (Columbia: South Caroliniana Library, 1982).
Several useful guides to the historical literature of the period stand out. Allan Nevins, James I. Robertson Jr., and Bell I. Wiley's Civil War Books: A Critical Bibliography(Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967) is brilliantly supplemented by Steven E. Woodworth, ed., The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1996), which has fortyseven essays and bibliographies on various chapters of the war. David J. Eicher's edition of The Civil War in Books: An Analytical Bibliography (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997) essentially updates the Nevins volume. T. Michael Parrish and Robert M. Willingham Jr.'s Confederate Imprints: A Bibliography of Southern Publications from Secession to Surrender (Austin: Jenkin; Katonah, N.Y.: Foster,