1. Friedrich Nietzsche, Human, All Too Human: A Book for Free Spirits, trans. R. J. Hollingdale (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 378.
2. On the cultural “assimilation of the machine” in the modernist period, see Lewis Mumford, Technics and Civilization (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1934), 321–63. For a survey of the cultural consequences of technological change, see Reyner Banham, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, 2d ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1980). For a wide-ranging cultural study of the advent of electricity, see Carolyn Marvin, When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988).
3. According to Andreas Huyssen, for example, “no other single factor has influenced the emergence of the new avantgarde art as much as technology, which not only fueled the artists' imagination […], but penetrated to the core of the work itself” (“The Hidden Dialectic: Avantgarde—Technology—Mass Culture,” in After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism [Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986], 9). On avant-garde culture and technology, see, for example, R. L. Rutsky, “The Avant-Garde Techne and the Myth of Functional Form,” in High Techē (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999), 73–101.
4. On the discrepancy between seeing and knowing in the wake of photography and cinema, see Karen Jacobs's study of modernist representations of the observer, The Eye's Mind: Literary Modernism and Visual Culture (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001).
5. Richard Wagner himself spoke of the united artwork of the future; see Wagner, “The Art-Work of the Future,” in The Art-Work of the Future and Other Works, trans. William Ashton Ellis (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993), 69–213. In this essay, incidentally, Wagner sets up an opposition between art and the machine (85).
6. Fredric Jameson's designation; see Jameson, Postmodernism; or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1991), 305. “Modern art,” Jameson writes, “drew its power and possibilities from being a backwater and an archaic holdover within a modernizing economy: it glorified, celebrated, and drama-