THE artistic creations and personal lives of Federico García Lorca, Luis Buñuel, and Salvador Dalí, three of the most celebrated Spanish artists of the twentieth century, have elicited remarkable and sustained critical interest in Spain and throughout the world. The centenary of their births, 1998 for Lorca, 2000 for Buñuel, and 2004 for Dalí, has provided the impulse for new reflections on their works and lives as individuals and also on their relationship with one another, as well as on possible links to other artists and intellectuals of their day. The scholars featured in this issue of the Bucknell Review are pleased to join with others throughout the world in honoring these now iconic figures who seem in many respects to be our contemporaries.
As is well known, Buñuel, Lorca, and Dalí lived together for a time at the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid, a prestigious cultural institution designed to foster and shape the intellectual development of Spain's brightest young thinkers, writers, and artists, from its foundation in 1910 until the outbreak of the Spanish civil war in 1936. At the Residencia de Estudiantes these three, then young, men were exposed to the ideas that were already shaping the intellectual and artistic life of Spain and Europe. The personages who visited and often lectured at the Residencia included José Ortega y Gasset, José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín), Miguel de Unamuno, Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Ramón del Valle Inclán, Andrés Segovia, Manuel de Falla, Maurice Ravel, Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Paul Valéry, Paul Claudel, and Louis Aragon. As this list suggests, the young residentes were exposed to some of the most authoritative thinkers of their day from a wide variety of intellectual endeavors.
Lorca's violent death in the early days of the Spanish civil war served to imprint his memory on his own and subsequent generations of Hispanic nations, while the intellectual diaspora produced by the civil war helped to make the works of Buñuel and Dalí known far beyond the national borders. At the same time, it is clear that each of these men, while keenly conscious of their roots in their particular regions of Spain, sought creative inspiration and experiences in an international arena. The present volume comprises critical