GALILEE-JERUSALEM RELATIONS IN
EARLY JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE.*
Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
This paper discusses Galilee-Jerusalem relations in the context of the “geography of restoration” as this is represented in various Jewish writings of the Second Temple period. The literary and archaeological records for the Jewish presence in Galilee in the Hasmonean and Herodian periods are examined against this ideology of a greater Israel. Finally, the alleged opposition in early Christianity between Galilee and Jerusalem is judged to be poorly grounded when various New Testament documents are read within this larger horizon of meaning.
In his 1937 monograph, GaliIäa und Jerusalem, Ernst Lohmeyer claimed that Markan geography points to a “greater Galilee”, a veritable “terra Christiana” from where a Christian evangelisation took place and where Christians awaited the Parousia.1 It was his intention to show that Palestinian Christianity was a diverse and multi-faceted reality, comprising both Galilee and Jerusalem, but with the former having pre-eminence. Unlike Lohmeyer, several of those who have followed his insight have tended to stress this difference between
* Main paper presented to the 55th General Meeting of the Studiorum Novi
Testamenti Societas, Tel Aviv, Israel, August 2, 2000, forthcoming in NTS.
Permission from Cambridge University Press for publication here is gratefully
1 E. Lohmeyer. Galilda und Jerusalem (FRLANT 34; Gbttingen:
Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1937), followed by R. H. Lightfoot, Locality and
Doctrine in the Gospels (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1938) and W. Marxsen,
Der Evangelist Markus. Studien zur Redaktionsgeschichte des Evangeliums
(Gbttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1959) 33–62. Cf. W. Bousset, Kyrios
Christos (Gbttingen: de Gruyter. 1913). For a detailed criticism of Lohmeyer's
idea of a “greater Galilee,” cf. G. Stemberger, “Galilee—Land of Salvation?” in
W. D. Davies, The Gospel and the Land (Berkley: University of California Press,
1974) 409–38 (esp. 415–21); T. Schmeller, “Jesus in Umland Galilaas,” BZ 38
(1994) 44–66 (esp. 50).