Leadership in Other Cultures
In this chapter, the results from numerous research studies conducted in various countries are presented and discussed so that trends can be examined and cultural similarities and differences in preferred leadership styles more easily identified.
While the research on leadership across cultures is limited, one significant exception is Project GLOBE, a long-term, multimethod, multiphase, cross-cultural research program that looks at leadership and organizational practices and values in sixty-one countries (House et al., 1999). The project is being conducted in three stages and has several goals and objectives, but the primary emphasis is on developing a theory to “describe, understand, and predict the impact of specific cultural variables on leadership and organizational processes and the effectiveness of these processes” (House, Javidan, and Dorfman, 2001, p. 492). In other words, Project GLOBE looks at the interrelationship between organizational leadership and societal and organizational culture, since culture affects values, beliefs, and meanings and also influences leadership (Ayman, Chemers, and Fiedler, 1995). The first stage of the project involved the development of the research protocol and instruments. The second stage is focusing on the relationship between subordinates' attitudes and performance and particular leadership styles. The final phase will involve field and laboratory experiments designed to test hypotheses that have been developed from the previous two stages. Project GLOBE initially identified twenty-three leadership styles that work in one or more of the cultures included in the project. These leadership styles were then categorized into six distinct leadership models: transformational-charismatic,