The impact of motivation on work performance has been of considerable interest to researchers for many years. Since the role of work in a society reflects the values of that society, work motivation is also presumably influenced by cultural issues. Managing across cultures requires motivating employees from various cultures, but finding a framework for motivating and managing behavior across cultures has proven difficult (Adler and Doktor, 1989). Overall, the evidence for the impact of culture on motivation is primarily experiential and anecdotal rather than research based.
Theories of motivation can be categorized into two primary schools of thought: content and process. Theorists such as A. H. Maslow (1943), F. Herzberg (1966), and D. McClelland (1976) developed what are known as content theories, in that they emphasize what motivates an individual. In contrast, Vroom (1964) and Locke (1991) proposed theories that emphasize how an individual is motivated to behave. These are known as process theories.
In an attempt to pull together the different theories and approaches to work motivation, Locke (1991) noted that content and process theories are not necessarily different. Rather, they address different aspects of the motivational sequence. He proposed that motivation be looked at as having a motivation core and a motivation hub. The model begins as a need theory and then moves to values and motives, which are the core of the motivation. Need theories, as proposed by Maslow and others, start with the assumption that people have a variety of needs that have to be met and that motivation is driven by the desire to satisfy those needs. Values