Communication and Negotiation
Problems in communication can have a direct impact on key organizational issues such as production quality, decision making, planning, conflict, and power. So effective communication is very important to an organization's success, especially when the communication is between international business partners and subsidiaries. Communication affects the quality of the exchange of information and, consequently, work relationships and performance. It has been suggested that it serves four different but equally important functions: control, motivation, emotional expression, and information (Scott and Mitchell, 1976). While it is important to share organizational information and to provide the opportunity for emotional expression within the organization, the two key issues facing managers are motivation and control.
Given differences in culturally accepted behavior, groups from different cultures are likely to communicate in different ways. In fact, in international relationships, communication effectiveness is influenced by the fit between the national and organizational cultures and by the cultural diversity of the employees (Li, 1999). Communication obstacles will be experienced when national-cultural inconsistencies exist in communication strategies. Further, as discussed in chapter 3, organizational culture has a direct effect on communication patterns. And when two different organizational cultures come into direct contact, miscommunication will result, damaging the relationship between them.
A central factor in the success or failure of intercultural encounters in management is the quality of interpersonal communication. One way to improve communication between individuals from different cultures is to provide training for managers on how to manage across cultures. G. L. Lippitt and D. S. Hoopes (1978) created several guidelines for effective cross-cultural training, which, even though they are more than twenty-five