The Re-Creation of Church-State Law,
Policy, and Discourse
WALL, n. [L. vallum; Sax. weal; D. wal; Ir. Gaelic, balla and fal;
Russ. val; W. gwal.] A work or structure of stone, brick or other
materials, raised to some highth, and intended for a defense or se-
curity. Walls of stone, with or without cement, are much used in
America for fences on farms; walls are laid as the foundations of
houses and the security of cellars. Walls of stone or brick form the
exterior of buildings, and they are often raised round cities and
forts as a defense against enemies.
—Noah Webster, An American Dictionary (1828)1
[A]ll thinking… is metaphorical.
—Robert Frost (1930)2
But the greatest thing by far is to be a master of metaphor.
—Aristotle, Poetics (4th century B.C.)3
The wall metaphor is ubiquitous in Western literature. Throughout the ages, writers have been drawn to the motif.4 A wall conjures up the image of an unambiguous, concrete barrier. It is a simple, yet dramatic and versatile figure of speech, as rich as “foundation,” “fortress,” “tower,” “pillar,” “bridge,” or any other architectural metaphor.
Walls serve a variety of functions. In its most primitive form, a wall marks a boundary that separates one area from another. A wall, of course, can be the supporting structure of a building. It is “one of the