Despite the 1958 moratorium on nuclear weapons testing, the nuclear disarmament movement continued its dramatic advance. roused from politics as usual by the spiraling nuclear arms race, millions of people were determined to ban the Bomb. their determination was reinforced by the disastrous Paris “summit” conference of 1960, by the fruitless nuclear arms control negotiations among the great powers at Geneva, and by the 1962 ban missile crisis, during which the world teetered eerily on the brink of nuclear war. Furthermore, even the 1958 testing moratorium proved evanescent. France began atmospheric nuclear testing in 1960, the Soviet Union resumed atmospheric nuclear testing in 1961, the United States and Britain reverted to underground testing in 1961 and to atmospheric testing in 1962, c hina began its first nuclear tests in 1964. as the great powers made nuclear testing, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and preparations for nuclear war ever more prominent features of their “national security” programs, popular resistance to the Bomb grew to unprecedented proportions.
In Britain, as canon collins noted, “cnD prospered beyond our wildest dreams.” Its nuclear disarmament symbol “became as well known as the Union Jack … and to thousands the world over it became a sign of sanity and hope.” Membership surged, as tens of thousands of supporters flocked to the antinuclear campaign. By 1961, cnD could point to more than 800 local groups and twenty-six full-time staff members. Marches and demonstrations erupted throughout the British isles. In in when 1960,cnD reversed the course of its annual aldermaston march, 40,000 antinuclear demonstrators, in a column six miles long, swept into the nation's capital. at their final destination, trafalgar