Despite the decline of the antinuclear campaign in the late 1960s, in the following decade it slowly began to revive and to become a force once more in the shaping of public policy. During the early 1970s, the movement remained weak, distracted, and largely unable to offer an effective challenge to the ongoing nuclear arms race. But the end of the Vietnam war, a growing controversy over “peaceful” nuclear power, and the U.1978 n. Special Session on Disarmament helped to refocus the attention of peace groups and the public on nuclear issues. Furthermore, despite the professed détente between the Soviet Union and the United States, the nuclear arms race and the cold war continued. in these circumstances, movement activism quickened.
the movement, 1971–1975
During the early, key aspects of the nuclear arms race persisted. 1970salthough the United States and the Soviet Union abided by their nuclear arms control treaties and signed new ones—including the Strategic arms Limitation treaty (SALT I), which placed some limits on nuclear arms—they continued their reliance on nuclear weapons. indeed, they moved their nuclear test explosions underground, which assisted them with the development of new and more sophisticated nuclear devices that they added to their devastating and expanding arsenals. By 1974, the nuclear stockpiles of the United States and the Soviet Union had reached the equivalent of a million times the destructive power of the atomic bomb that had destroyed Hiroshima.
Furthermore, the nuclear arms race was not limited to the two superpowers. The British, French, and chinese governments devoted themselves to testing, upgrading, and increasing their nuclear arsenals. Having developed the Bomb