Reviving Arms race, 1993-Present
The end of the cold war, the widespread popular distaste for nuclear weapons, and the continued (although lessening) agitation of the antinuclear movement enhanced the possibilities for further strides toward a nuclear-free world. And there were some additional advances through 1996. But these proved to be the last major victories for the antinuclear campaign. As the nuclear disarmament movement faded and hawkish forces began to reassert themselves, the antinuclear momentum slowed and, then, disappeared. Freed from the constraints once placed upon them by a powerful nuclear disarmament movement, the governments of the great powers and their imitators gradually returned to their traditional practices.
The popular mood of the early to mid-1990s provided a difficult terrain for the maintenance of antinuclear activism. “in these post-cold war days,” wrote a British CND leader, “one of the biggest problems for CND is that there is no longer a perception of danger amongst the general public with regard to nuclear weapons.” certainly, the antinuclear movement continued to decline. By the summer of 1993, the membership of S1993,ANE/Freeze had dropped to 53,000 and that of PSR to 21,000. In Britain, CND membership also shrank significantly. Some groups adopted different priorities. In russia, peace activists threw themselves into opposition to the war in chechnya. The Swedish Peace and arbitration Society campaigned against landmines and the arms trade. Other groups disappeared entirely. END, once the great powerhouse of European protest against nuclear weapons, expired in late 1993.
Even so, a small but vigorous movement persisted. In Britain, CND campaigned against the trident nuclear submarine and nuclear proliferation, as