Introduction:

what is Modern Arabic literature?

The expression 'Modern Arabic Literature', which forms the subject of this survey, is a slightly problematic one, none of the three words that go to make up the phrase being quite as self-explanatory as they might at first appear. Before commencing our account of the topic, a brief word on definitions will therefore be in order, in order to define the scope of the work.

First, 'modern'. By 'modern', I refer, generally speaking, to literature written after the Middle East and North Africa had begun to be exposed to large-scale Western and European influence towards the end of the eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth century AD. This process, which has been extensively discussed both in Arabic and in Western languages, was both a cumulative and a complex one. For practical purposes, 1798 (the date of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt) has often been taken as a starting point for this chain of developments, but though the date has merit as a convenient anchor-point (and I shall use it as such), it has less relevance for other parts of the Arab world, some of which remained remote from European influence, both from a social and a literary point of view, until way into the twentieth century, while a few (Lebanon is the obvious case in point) had enjoyed extensive, if selected, contacts with Europe for centuries before the emperor's French army set foot on Egyptian soil. As we shall see in the pages that follow, the pace of literary development (like social and political development) in the Middle East has been far from uniform, and rigid cut-off dates, though convenient, can be frequently misleading. In any event, as the following pages will again show, though much 'modern' Arabic literature does indeed show signs of influence by, or borrowing from, the Western tradition, any attempt to understand the development of modern literature without some appreciation of the classical Arabic heritage is unlikely to be productive.

Let us turn, then, from 'modern' to 'Arabic'. At first, this term appears less problematic: 'Arabic' literature must surely be 'literature written in Arabic', and this definition will indeed serve well for the vast majority of the material we are dealing with. But the political history of the Middle East over the last two centuries having been marked by an at times aggressive

-ix-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Modern Arabic Literature
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • The New Edinburgh Islamic Surveys ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Note on Abbreviations vi
  • Preface and Acknowledgements vii
  • Introduction - What is Modern Arabic Literature? ix
  • 1: The Background 1
  • 2: The Revival 23
  • 3: Neo-Classical Poetry 42
  • 4: Romanticism in Arabic Poetry 60
  • 5: Poetry: the Modernists 79
  • 6: Prose Literature: Early Developments 97
  • 7: Prose Literature: the Period of Maturity 115
  • 8: The Sixties Generation and Beyond 139
  • 9: Drama: Early Experiments 163
  • 10: Drama: the Period of Maturity 178
  • 11: Conclusion 199
  • Bibliography 201
  • Index 212
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 222

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.