Chicano Students and the Courts: The Mexican American Legal Struggle for Educational Equality

By Richard R. Valencia | Go to book overview

8

High-Stakes Testing

Currently, an educational reform movement is sweeping across K—12 public education in the United States, affecting millions of schoolchildren and youths.1 This collective, pervasive, and top-down course of action—which I refer to as the “standards-based school reform movement” —holds students, educators, and administrators accountable for reaching specific benchmarks (e.g., minimum test performance by students on state-mandated tests). This movement has its roots in the 1983 volume A Nation at Risk (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983), produced by a commission appointed by Terrell H. Bell, Secretary of Education in the Reagan Administration. In its highly critical observations of the crisis in American education, A Nation at Risk commented, “If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today, we might have viewed it as an act of war” (p. 1).2 This indictment of the “rising tide of mediocrity” (p. 1) laid the foundation of the standards-based school reform movement, including goals such as (a) combining the old basics with the new basics (e.g., computer literacy), (b) more time devoted to learning; (c) more testing, (d) measurable standards, and (e) higher-quality teaching (see Pearl, 2002).

“Accountability”—the standards-based school reform movement's mantra—is being driven by high-stakes testing, a form of assessment in which test results hold important consequences for students, their parents and teachers, schools, districts, and administrators. As of 2005, nineteen states had exit-level tests that all students must pass to graduate from high school, and seven other states will phase in exit exams by 2012 (Center on Education Policy, 2005).3 About 72% of all U.S. students enrolled in high school in 2012 will be required to pass exit-level exams in order to graduate, a sharp increase from the 50% of students affected by such exams in 2005. High school exit-level exams will have an even greater effect on students of color. An estimated 82% of minority-group students and 87% of

-268-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Chicano Students and the Courts: The Mexican American Legal Struggle for Educational Equality
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Introduction - Understanding and Analyzing Mexican American School Litigation 1
  • 1: School Segregation 7
  • 2: School Segregation 79
  • 3: Special Education 117
  • 4: Bilingual Education 153
  • 5: School Closures 198
  • 6: Undocumented Students 224
  • 7: Higher Education Financing 251
  • 8: High-Stakes Testing 268
  • Conclusion - The Contemporary and Future Status of Mexican American-Initiated School Litigation; What We Have Learned from This Legal History 306
  • Notes 321
  • References 401
  • Index 445
  • About the Author 484
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 484

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.