1. Portions of this preface build on Valencia & Black (2002, pp. 82, 90–94). For a critique of Sowell's reasoning, see Id. (p. 88).
2. See, for example, Booth & Dunn (1996); Chavkin (1993); Chavkin & Williams (1989); Comer (1986); Dornbusch & Ritter (1988); Englund, Luckner, Whaley, & Egeland (2004); Marburger (1990); Sheldon & Epstein (2005). Also, see Cotton & Wikelund (1989) for a synthesis of forty-one documents covering the positive effects of parental involvement on children's academic achievement and affective development.
3. For research on Latino parental participation, see, for example, Achor & Morales (1990); Anguiano (2004); Delgado-Gaitan (1992); Eamon (2005); Gándara (1982); Immerwahr & Foleno (2000); Keith & Lichtman (1994); Martínez, DeGarmo, & Eddy (2004); Moll, Amanti, Neff, & González (1992); Moreno & López (1999); Okagaki & Frensch (1998); Treviño (2004).
4. This quote by Graglia is from a newsclip (September 10, 1997, news conference at UT) shown on NBC's Today, September 12, 1997.
5. It appears that Graglia's views on affirmative action have hurt him. According to D.H. Martin, reporter for the UT Daily Texan, “Former President Ronald Reagan [in 1986] pulled away from appointing Graglia to the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals after complaints about his remarks regarding affirmative action” (1997, p. 2).
6. The phrase “Mexican American community,” which I frequently use in this book, is extensively seen in the extant literature. On November 27, 2006, I conducted a Google search using “Mexican American community” as a descriptor, and I retrieved 304,000 hits. Conceptualizing the notion of Mexican American community is no easy task. This fast-growing group of people, who have roots in Mexico, numbered 20.6 million based on the 2000 Census and constitute approximately 59% of the total 35.3 million Latinos residing in the United States (Valencia, 2002a, p. 55, Table 2.2). Mexican Americans reside in every state in the United States but are largely concentrated in the Southwest region (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas), where 75% of the total are located (Valencia, 2002a, p. 55, Table 2.3).