Chicano Students and the Courts: The Mexican American Legal Struggle for Educational Equality

By Richard R. Valencia | Go to book overview

Notes

NOTES TO THE PREFACE

1. Portions of this preface build on Valencia & Black (2002, pp. 82, 90–94). For a critique of Sowell's reasoning, see Id. (p. 88).

2. See, for example, Booth & Dunn (1996); Chavkin (1993); Chavkin & Williams (1989); Comer (1986); Dornbusch & Ritter (1988); Englund, Luckner, Whaley, & Egeland (2004); Marburger (1990); Sheldon & Epstein (2005). Also, see Cotton & Wikelund (1989) for a synthesis of forty-one documents covering the positive effects of parental involvement on children's academic achievement and affective development.

3. For research on Latino parental participation, see, for example, Achor & Morales (1990); Anguiano (2004); Delgado-Gaitan (1992); Eamon (2005); Gándara (1982); Immerwahr & Foleno (2000); Keith & Lichtman (1994); Martínez, DeGarmo, & Eddy (2004); Moll, Amanti, Neff, & González (1992); Moreno & López (1999); Okagaki & Frensch (1998); Treviño (2004).

4. This quote by Graglia is from a newsclip (September 10, 1997, news conference at UT) shown on NBC's Today, September 12, 1997.

5. It appears that Graglia's views on affirmative action have hurt him. According to D.H. Martin, reporter for the UT Daily Texan, “Former President Ronald Reagan [in 1986] pulled away from appointing Graglia to the 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals after complaints about his remarks regarding affirmative action” (1997, p. 2).

6. The phrase “Mexican American community,” which I frequently use in this book, is extensively seen in the extant literature. On November 27, 2006, I conducted a Google search using “Mexican American community” as a descriptor, and I retrieved 304,000 hits. Conceptualizing the notion of Mexican American community is no easy task. This fast-growing group of people, who have roots in Mexico, numbered 20.6 million based on the 2000 Census and constitute approximately 59% of the total 35.3 million Latinos residing in the United States (Valencia, 2002a, p. 55, Table 2.2). Mexican Americans reside in every state in the United States but are largely concentrated in the Southwest region (Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas), where 75% of the total are located (Valencia, 2002a, p. 55, Table 2.3).

-321-

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Chicano Students and the Courts: The Mexican American Legal Struggle for Educational Equality
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Introduction - Understanding and Analyzing Mexican American School Litigation 1
  • 1: School Segregation 7
  • 2: School Segregation 79
  • 3: Special Education 117
  • 4: Bilingual Education 153
  • 5: School Closures 198
  • 6: Undocumented Students 224
  • 7: Higher Education Financing 251
  • 8: High-Stakes Testing 268
  • Conclusion - The Contemporary and Future Status of Mexican American-Initiated School Litigation; What We Have Learned from This Legal History 306
  • Notes 321
  • References 401
  • Index 445
  • About the Author 484
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