Brief Biographies of Important Figures
Mentioned in the Text

Bethmann Hollweg, Theobald von (1856–1921). Chancellor of Germany from 1909 to 1917.

Bismarck, Prince Otto von (1815–1898). Prussian prime minister and German chancellor from 1862 to 1890. Played a large role in the unification of Germany.

Casement, Roger (1864–1916). British antiimperialist who was involved in a plot to smuggle German weapons into Ireland. The British uncovered the plot and executed Casement.

Clemenceau, Georges (1841–1929). French war minister and prime minister from 1917 to 1919.

Enver Pasha (1881–1922). Ottoman military commander and minister of war.

Feisal, ibn Hussein, Prince (1885–1933). Son of ibn Ali Hussein (see below) and commander of Arab forces during the Arab revolt.

Foch, Ferdinand (1851–1929). French marshal named commander of all allied forces in 1918.

Franz Ferdinand, Austro-Hungarian Archduke (1863–1914). Heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the man whose assassination sparked the July Crisis that led to the war.

Frederick II (1712–1786). King of Prussia. Both he and Frederick William used military power to increase the strength of Prussia in European affairs.

Frederick William(1620–1688). King of Prussia.

French, Sir John (1852–1925). Commander of the British Expeditionary Force, 1914–1915.

Groener, Wilhelm (1867–1939). Named German commander-in-chief in the last weeks of the war.

Haig, Sir Douglas (1861–1928). British soldier named to replace John French as commander of the British Expeditionary Force in 1915.

Hindenburg, Paul von (1847–1937). Commander of German forces from 1916 to 1918.

House, Edward (1858–1938). Confidante of President Wilson and Wilson's personal representative in Europe.

Hussein, Ibn Ali ibn Mohammed (1856?–1931). Sherif of Mecca and king of the Hejaz.

Jaurès, Jean (1859–1914). French socialist politician and advocate of a national militia instead of a professional army. He was assassinated in Paris just days before the war began.

Joffre, Joseph (1852–1931). French marshal and chief architect of France's 1914 war strategy. He commanded French forces until 1916.

Kemal, Mustapha (1881–1938). Ottoman military commander and future president of Turkey.

Kitchener, Lord Horatio (1850–1916). Architect of the British volunteer army system known either as the “Kitchener Armies” or the “New Armies.”

-xvii-

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