A
A List of Clean Tortures

This appendix lists the main coercive physical techniques covered in this study It focuses exclusively on techniques that leave few marks. Upon first glance, some of these may not appear to leave few marks or, in some cases, not even constitute torture (such as forced standing or sleep deprivation). Those in doubt should consult the specific chapters on these techniques.

Those categories marked with an asterisk indicate classes of techniques that may or may not leave marks depending on how they are used. The list below excludes the list of scarring techniques discussed in this study; these would be too long to mention. It may suffice here to note that the main scarring techniques considered in this study involve burning (flames, irons, branding), cutting (knives, razors, pins), whipping (long or short whip, canes), boiling (in water or oil), and full restraints (strappado, full suspension, the rack, hell cuffs, and shackles).

Historically, some clean techniques listed below appear in predictable combinations. I call these combinations torture regimens or styles of torture. Styles are helpful as a heuristic device, highlighting continuities and discontinuities in the empirical record.

Modern styles of torture tend to fall into two classes. One class is built around electrotorture, and I distinguish specific styles in the manner in which they supplement it. When electrotorture is commonly supplemented with water tortures, the style is French modern; when it is supplemented with gas masks, Slavic modern; and when it is supplemented commonly with the falaka, Mediterranean modern. Anglo-Saxon modern is based around stress and duress techniques usually supplemented with water tortures, beating with various instruments, noise,

-553-

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Torture and Democracy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xv
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Torture and Democracy xxv
  • Introduction 1
  • I - Torture and Democracy 33
  • 1: Modern Torture and Its Observers 35
  • 2: Torture and Democracy 45
  • II - Remembering Stalinism and Nazism 65
  • 3: Lights, Heat, and Sweat 69
  • 4: Whips and Water 91
  • 5: Bathtubs 108
  • III - A History of Electric Stealth 121
  • 6: Shock 123
  • 7: Magnetos 144
  • 8: Currents 167
  • 9: Singing the World Electric 190
  • 10: Prods, Tasers, and Stun Guns 225
  • 11: Stun City 239
  • IV - Other Stealth Traditions 259
  • 12: Sticks and Bones 269
  • 13: Water, Sleep, and Spice 279
  • 14: Stress and Duress 294
  • 15: Forced Standing and Other Positions 316
  • 16: Fists and Exercises 334
  • 17: Old and New Restraints 347
  • 18: Noise 360
  • 19: Drugs and Doctors 385
  • V - Politics and Memory 403
  • 20: Supply and Demand for Clean Torture 405
  • 21: Does Torture Work? 446
  • 22: What the Apologists Say 480
  • 23: Why Governments Don't Learn 519
  • 24: The Great Age of Torture in Modern Memory 537
  • A - A List of Clean Tortures 553
  • B - Issues of Method 557
  • C - Organization and Explanations 566
  • D - A Note on Sources for American Torture During the Vietnam War 581
  • Notes 593
  • Selected Bibliography 781
  • Index 819
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