Notes

Introduction

Unpublished sources from the Public Records Office at Kew, London are designated in the notes by the code PRO followed by the standard code designating the office of origin. The codes used in this study are CO (Colonial Office), FO (Foreign Office), and WO (War Office).

1. See Niccolo Machiavelli, “The Prince,” in Selected Political Writings, trans. David Wootton (Indianapolis: Hackett, 1994), 55.

2. Report of the Independent Commission of the Los Angeles Police Department (Los Angeles: The Commission, 1991), ii. Ten years earlier, a similar chase from the same intersection ended in the driver's death, and no charges were brought in that case. Lou Cannon, Official Negligence (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1999), 97–100.

3. Cannon, Official Negligence, 27, 31–32; John Murray and Barnet Resnick, A Guide to Taser Technology (Whitewater, CO: Whitewater Press, 1997), 75–77, 83.

4. Cannon, Official Negligence, 26, 44.

5. Tom Owens with Rod Browning, Lying Eyes (New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1994), 121.

6. Stacey Koon with Robert Deitz, Presumed Guilty (Washington, DC: Regnery, 1992), 38.

7. Ibid., 41.

8. Ibid., 41–42.

9. Ibid., 42. See also Cannon, Official Negligence, 35–36.

10. Ibid., 187.

-593-

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Torture and Democracy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xv
  • Acknowledgments xix
  • Torture and Democracy xxv
  • Introduction 1
  • I - Torture and Democracy 33
  • 1: Modern Torture and Its Observers 35
  • 2: Torture and Democracy 45
  • II - Remembering Stalinism and Nazism 65
  • 3: Lights, Heat, and Sweat 69
  • 4: Whips and Water 91
  • 5: Bathtubs 108
  • III - A History of Electric Stealth 121
  • 6: Shock 123
  • 7: Magnetos 144
  • 8: Currents 167
  • 9: Singing the World Electric 190
  • 10: Prods, Tasers, and Stun Guns 225
  • 11: Stun City 239
  • IV - Other Stealth Traditions 259
  • 12: Sticks and Bones 269
  • 13: Water, Sleep, and Spice 279
  • 14: Stress and Duress 294
  • 15: Forced Standing and Other Positions 316
  • 16: Fists and Exercises 334
  • 17: Old and New Restraints 347
  • 18: Noise 360
  • 19: Drugs and Doctors 385
  • V - Politics and Memory 403
  • 20: Supply and Demand for Clean Torture 405
  • 21: Does Torture Work? 446
  • 22: What the Apologists Say 480
  • 23: Why Governments Don't Learn 519
  • 24: The Great Age of Torture in Modern Memory 537
  • A - A List of Clean Tortures 553
  • B - Issues of Method 557
  • C - Organization and Explanations 566
  • D - A Note on Sources for American Torture During the Vietnam War 581
  • Notes 593
  • Selected Bibliography 781
  • Index 819
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